About five years ago, I had an unpleasant experience while driving with my friends. We got in a car and drove all over the city. At one point, while I was sitting in the back seat, a friend who was driving caused an accident. Fortunately, nobody was injured. However, I got very scared and couldn’t calm down for a while. Soon after that a friend offered to drive me home and I had to sit in the back. When I entered the car, I felt enormous fear. This can be explained by classical conditioning. In fact, this is a special type of classical ...
Pneumonia College Essays Samples For Students
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Of principal concern is the prevention and control of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) by medical practitioners in intensive care units (ICUs). VAP is one of the most frequently reported infections acquired by patients under mechanical ventilation healthcare. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) persists to be a frequent and potentially deadly complication of ventilator care (Chulay, 2005), often occurring within environments characteristic of the intensive care unit (ICU) that are high-tech and high touch. Patients who are ventilated and intubated present the unique challenge for critical care registered nurses (RNs) to incorporate evidence-informed practices concerning the delivery of high-quality care (Crunden, 2005).
Preventing Ventilator-associated pneumonia
Critical care patients on ventilators
I __ Intervention/indicator
increased frequency of hand washing and strict disinfection as measures to prevent the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critical care patients.
= Critical care patients in whom this intervention is not performed.
= Ventilator associated pneumonia is prevented in critical care patients.
T__Time of discharge
In line with the PICO format, the PICO question would be, "how does increased frequency of hand washing and disinfection affect the development of ventilator assisted pneumonia in critical care patients?"
In carrying out this research, ...
Studies show that stroke survivors with poor oral hygiene have a poor quality of life (Armstrong and Mosher 2011). (Lam et al. 2014) have explored the effect of clinical oral health and socio-demographic factors on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients following stroke. Oral health-related quality of life results were received before and after provision or oral health promotion interventions. Eighty-one patients faced a stroke rehabilitation ward. OHRQoL have also determined the outcomes after in-hospital oral health intervention programme. They observed a significant association between the absence of regular daily brushing and majority of measurement scale items (6 out of ...
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is the repeated blockage of upper airway when a person is asleep. It is the most common type of apnea during which the diaphragm and chest muscles open the obstructed airways and pull air into the lungs. This loss of breath reduces the flow of oxygen to vital organs causing irregular heartbeat (Force & American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2009). A person usually snores loudly at night with interruption by a silent period when they are not breathing, they wake up not refreshed in the morning, headaches that are hard to treat, feel sleepy or drowsy all day ...
Designing an approach to Lower Respiratory Tract Infections.
No University Affiliation
Ethiopia is highly affected by communicable diseases like many countries less economically developed countries. These diseases accounted for over 60% of total death and 63% of DALYs in Ethiopia 2010. Out of these communicable diseases lower respiratory infections play a major role in the mortality and morbidity of the people. These diseases contribute about 14 % and almost 11% of towards all communicable death and DALYs respectively ((( Source from summative assignment))). The risk of developing acute lower respiratory infection was found to be very high in children under the age ...
Early ambulation is now recognised as an intervention that confers many positive benefits to patients following cardiac surgery. However, there is lack of clarity as to the optimum time for the patient to perform early ambulation. A focused question was developed to ascertain whether early ambulation within 24 hours after extubation is more effective compared to ambulation 24 hours or more following extubation. The clinical question guided the search and retrieval of 6 studies that were subsequently appraised. There are benefits and many limitations of the chosen studies and do not provide sufficient evidence to answer the clinical question ...
The patient in this x-ray image is centred with both lungs apices. The image has also captured the costophrenic angles but some of the bones are invisible in the picture. The reason some of the bone structures are invisible is because of poor reproduction. Additionally, the medial ends of clavicle are invincible thus it is impossible to assess rotation using this image. Another observation is that the trachea is patent and deviated to the right. The image also shows that the heart is deviated to the right. The heart of the patient has a ...
John Hopkins School of Medicine (1995) describes conducting airways as those consisting of the oro-and nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, main bronchi, lobar bronchi, divisions of bronchi and bronchioles. However, the alveoli, alveolar ducts and respiratory bronchioles are involved in the gaseous exchange with the pulmonary capillary.
Community-acquired pneumonia is caught in the public areas such as schools. It is caused by the virus, bacteria and fungi (John Hopskins School of Medicine, 1995).
Hospital-acquired pneumonia may be acquired in hospital and in most cases at the intensive care unit.
Reactivated tuberculosis occurs due to reactivation that takes place within the ...
Why Pneumococcal Infections is a Global Health Problem
Pneumococcal infections are mainly caused by streptococcus pneumoniae also known as pneumococcus. Serious pneumococcal infections are a major global health problem. By the year 2010, the World Health Organization estimates that more than 1.6 million people – including more than 800,000 children under the age of 5 years – die every year from pneumococcal infections (Georgiev, 2009). Nearly all of these infections and deaths occur in the world’s poorest countries. These include Sub-Saharan African countries, Latin America, South Asia, some parts of Europe and Australia. In Latin America, epidemiological studies show that infants younger than 6 months have a higher risk ...
Apply The Concepts Of Epidemiology And Nursing Research To A Communicable Disease.Chickenpox Essay Examples
Description of the chickenpox as a communicable disease.
Chicken pox is also refers to as varicella, is a communicable disease (CDC – ACIP, 2015). Chicken pox is a viral disease and it is characterized by an itchy red rash in body which mainly begins on face then chest and eventually to the back before spreading allover the body. Herpes varicella-zoster virus causes chickenpox. The oozing blisters or bed linens of an infected person, or contact with the clothing, or droplets as a result of sneeze or cough are all means of spreading the chicken pox. The person infected by the virus will show the symptoms after ten to twenty days of ...
Unplanned extubation can be defined as the premature removal of ETT. It can be deliberate or accidental. Usually, it is caused by mechanical ventilation, which is the common process in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Unplanned extubations represents fourth most common adverse event in NICUs in North America. Unplanned extubation can result in several complications such as acute cardiorespiratory deterioration, bronchospasm, hypotension, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and subglottic stenosis. Duration of intubation, short length of ETT, less common use of sedatives and muscle relaxants, and time spent out of bed in the hand of parents, i.e. movements, are some of ...
Healthcare Quality Initiative Paper
For many people both in medical and non-medical world, Health care quality initiative represents a huge undertaking in developing and improving the overall quality of care. Medicare system offers a perfect avenue to enhance the quality of care offered by professionals. In explanation, Medicare is a social insurance program that caters for both the financial and wellbeing of the elderly sick and disabled persons under 65. Included in this category are individuals at the end stage of renal disease. This Medicare system program is financed chiefly by the premiums, taxes and revenue from the federal government. It is divided into two components – ...
Karen Ann Quinlan is a woman who lived between March 1954 and June 1985. She was born to a single mother of American Irish ancestry. Later, her mom gave her up for adoption to Joseph and Julia Quinlan; a childless couple at the time. (Quinlan, 1978). At age 21 in 1975, however, after moving away from her adopted parents to live with friends; she encountered the unfortunate experience of becoming unconscious, remaining in a coma for almost ten years. From reports she was dieting, had very little to eat within two days of the incident and was taking tonics and valium; besides drinking ...
- Thesis: In Katherine Porter’s Jilting of Granny Weatherall, granny Weartherall’s main antagonist is life itself (that throws back and forth), but she manages to soldier on and weather all kinds of adversity till her death.
- Jilted at the age of 20
- Granny Weatherall gets jilted by her lover, George, at the age of 20.
- She withstands the pain of the break-up.
- Sick at 40
- At the age of 40, granny Weatherall develops milky leg and double pneumonia.
- She manages to pull through.
The debate on the safety of Genetically Modified (GM) foods has raged on for close to two decades now. On one hand of the controversy are people who argue that GM foods are safe and suitable in ensuring that the increasing world population gets adequate food in the face of deteriorating climate and unfavorable production factors. On the other hand, there are a significant number of people who allege that GM foods have negative long-term effect on human beings. Those opposed to GMOs have cited failure by researchers to prove safety and attributed the increment in chronic diseases to the ...
Endotracheal suctioning is one of the common procedures performed on patients with an artificial airway. It helps to remove secretions to prevent obstruction. Suctioning is also important in intubated patients in order to prevent the accumulation of secretions, which would then lead to colonization of the respiratory tract by pathogenic bacteria leading to the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Endotracheal suctioning can immediately reduce the dynamic compliance and expired tidal volume in patients (G Briassoulis, 2009).
A study by Choi et al in 2005 indicated that manual hyperinflation followed by suctioning induces beneficial changes in respiratory mechanics in mechanically ventilated ...
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition caused by a progressed state of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The retrovirus can be transmitted through bodily fluids such as blood, semen, breast milk, and vaginal fluids via the bloodstream or mucous membranes (Moss; Maartens et al.; Simon et al.).
Infection by HIV typically has four stages. The first stage is acute or primary infection which may last up to a few weeks, during which the infected person may either be asymptomatic or have flu-like symptoms such as fever, rash, malaise, body aches, chills, and swollen lymph nodes. Progression of the ...
Exercise 1: Anatomy of the Respiratory System
What are the two functions of the larynx?
Larynx is a cartilaginous and a muscular structure while holds vocal cords together. It is used by human beings to talk, swallow and breathe. It is lined by the mucous membrane hence forming part of the respiratory system. Larynx protects the airways by closing quickly after mechanical simulation hence stopping respiratory and curbing the entry of foreign substances into the airways. The larynx also produces sound, controls ventilation and acts as a sensory organ.
Where does gas exchange take place in the lungs?
Gaseous exchange occurs in the lungs and for it to take place; there is the need for a place where ...
Fighting Superbugs; more refined tactics need to be discovered
Frequent use of antibiotics promotes growth of antibiotic resistant bacteria or superbugs. These bacteria are immune to the strongest medications. Despite the great progress in healthcare and medical technology, antibiotic resistant bacteria still need to be addressed very effectively. Superbugs are at rage against the humankind. An estimated one in twenty, or five percent, of patients now pick up a threatening superbug infection from the hospitals and this number is rising all the time. A recent study has shown that more than 1.7 million patients in the United States develop ...
Hist 1303 Western Civilization to 1500
Spring 2014 T Th 9:25- 10;40
I certify that I am the author of this work and that any assistance I received in its preparation is fully acknowledged. I have cited any sources from which I used data, ideas, or words either quoted or paraphrased. I also certify that this work was prepared by me specifically for this course and has not been submitted to any other class."Signed_____________________ Date______________
The Black Death
In October 1347, there was a plaque pandemic that struck a good part of the earth’s surface (Exploring the Middle Ages 99). It was first referred to as ...
Sepsis is a clinical condition that evokes an inflammatory response of the host immune system in response to clinically-suspected infections. It usually occurs in an individual with a weak immune system such as a post-surgery patient, organ transplant patient, cancer patients or an AIDS patient. It spreads throughout the body via the bloodstream. There are several degrees of sepsis such as severe sepsis, septic shock and refractory septic shock (Morrell, Micek & Kollef, 2009) that together make up the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (Mayr, Yende & Angus, 2014). Sepsis and septic shock are some of the leading causes of death in the world, ...
My telephone rings and it is Joe, my news manager.
“Jillian, there a breaking story. An invasion of the lungs. I need you on it. Where are you guys?”
“We’re just finishing up the interview in the femoral vein. We always edit later if you think it’s a hot story.”
“It’s bacteria. Our girls got a fever so you should be feeling the heat already,” he responds.
“We’re on it.” I tell my photographer Doug who also pilots this sub to head for the lungs.
“Which way?” he asks and I roll my eyes.
“If you would ever bother learning the background material before we’re miniaturized you wouldn’t have to ask. Head ...
On the differential diagnosis of the presented medical history, several medical conditions relating to the cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, muscle and bone systems can be linked with those medical signs and symptoms. Exploring the several causes of the chest pain, all the above systems listed are likely to be a cause. However, the history of hypertension eliminates those that are related to the digestive, muscular and bony etiologies. Further reviewing the role of high cholesterol, palor and increased sweating, a conclusion of heart attack or condition is made. Further investigations might need to be conducted to make the definitive diagnosis. Once this ...
This laboratory report tries to recognize an unknown bacterial species. The Gram stain disclosed bacteria to be both gram-negative and positive and via microscopy it confirmed to be rod and cocci respectively. Now two different bacteria were on the agar. One was a coliform and other a non coliform. The bacteria were exposed to all essential microbiological techniques employed to recognize an unknown bacterial species. The unknown comprised about 1% of the total bacterial flora of humans and even most of the warm-blooded animals. The bacteria are the most extensively studied prokaryotic organism, and an essential species in the ...
The human body is perhaps one of the most comprehensive systems that can be jeopardized by different infections. Such infections include Hospital Acquired Infections, which can be contracted through different ways. This paper will highlight on three distinct aspects of Hospital Acquired Infections including the different types of Hospital Acquired Infections and its subsequent risk factors, the effects of Hospital Acquired Infections, and various methods through which hospitals can prevent Hospital Acquired Infections. Overall, the paper will address the above connoted aspects in order to give a comprehensive understanding of the infection.
Risk factors and types of Hospital Acquired Infections
Hospital acquired infections can also be referred to ...
Sepsis in the Newborn
Definition of Sepsis in a Neonate
Neonatal sepsis is “a clinical syndrome of bacteremia with systemic signs and symptoms of infection and a positive culture from central body fluid” (Guha et al., 2005). It is the most common cause of neonatal mortality (Guha et al., 2005) and comes in two forms, namely early- onset sepsis and late-onset sepsis. Early-onset sepsis usually occurs within 72 hours of birth and can be attributed to perinatal risk factors, which usually come with respiratory problems and pneumonia. Late-onset sepsis, on the other hand, occurs after 72 hours upon birth and can be caused by infections that ...
Hospital Acquired Infections A hospital acquired infection is an infection that is acquired by a patient while receiving treatment in hospital. The patient was admitted in hospital for the treatment of a different disease however on being discharged it is discovered he has acquired an infection during his stay. These infections are known as nosocomial infections. Researchers released a report that stated that hospital acquired infections killed 48,000 people every year. Sepsis and Pneumonia were found to be the most common infections. The hospital discharge records of forty states were examined in the period 1998 and 2006 showing the infections cost $ ...