Andersson, H.C., Hallstrom, H. and Kihlman, B.A. (2014). Intake of caffeine and other
methylxantines during pregnancy and risk for adverse effects in pregnant women and their fetuses. Denmark: Expressen Tryk and Kopicenter.
Birrittieri, C. (2012). What every woman should know about fertility and her biological clock.
New Jersey: Career Press.
The study further indicated that about 151 milligram or higher of caffeine consumption can also increase the risk of miscarriage that may occur either on the first or the second trimester of pregnancy. Caffeine intake in more than the moderated amount can cause a delay in conception, even if it is unclear that caffeine can cause infertility among fertile women. This evaluation was based on the experiment performed on rodents that showed how caffeine affects the fertility and reproduction by increasing the time to pregnancy, thereby causing a delay in conception.
Bolumar, F., Olsen, J., Rebagliato, M. and Bisante, L. (2011). Caffeine intake and delayed
conception:A European Multicenter Study on Infertility and Subfecundity. American
The study showed that the relation between caffeine and infertility is often viewed upon the mode of administration of caffeine to the body. The brewing process, for instance, may affect the efficiency by which caffeine is extracted. The size of the cup used to serve the caffeine-rich beverage will also affect the strength of the caffeine content for each serving. Based on these influencing factors in caffeine consumption, it can be gleaned from the research study that moderate serving of caffeine is ideally employed to study the effects of caffeine to the reproductive health.
Bracken, M.B. et.al. (2013). Association of Maternal Caffeine Consumption with decrements in
fetal growth. Americal Journal of Epidemiology. 157(5):456-466.
Because about 75% of pregnant women consume caffeine, the authors pursued the conduct of a research study regarding the association of caffeine intake with the risk of a reduced fetal growth. It has found out that higher consumption of caffeine is highly associated with the maternal age of 24 years old and below. The presence of smoking of more than 10 cigarettes per day with caffeine intake further increases the risks to the retardation of fetal growth during the first and third trimester. In their findings, it has been calculated that the overall risk affecting fetal growth with caffeine intake is about 7 percent. Caffeine intake does not have any significant effect on the child’s gestational age, which indicates that the effects of caffeine is mainly limited to the fetal growth and not to the gestational age during delivery.
Caan, B., Quesenberry, C.P. and Coates, A.O. (2011). Differences in fertility associated with
caffeinated beverage consumption. American Journal of Public Health. 88 (2):270-274.
In a study involving the effect of caffeine to the human fertility, the authors indicated that the total consumption of caffeine by their subjects has no significant influence to human fertility, although they noted that it is not plausible to rule out the possibility of their association, especially when there appears to be an insignificant association between them during the later cycles of caffeine and coffee intake. It has been noted too that tea consumption does have an effect on fertility that enhances the condition in combination of lifestyle activities that may tend to increase the fertility rate. Tea drinkers are known to have the profile of living a healthy lifestyle, such as smoking less, avoidance of fatty foods, drinking less coffee and doing more exercise. Tea also contains hypoxanthine as its active ingredient that can influence the fertilization of the egg cell.
Chu, Y. (2012). Coffee: Emerging Health Effects and Disease Prevention. London: John Wiley
A chapter of this book discussed about maternal coffee intake and how it is widely known to cause spontaneous abortion. It supports such relationship of caffeine by stating that the CYP1A2 polymorphism contributes to the risk of recurrent miscarriage among pregnant women. Taking more than 300 mg of caffeine in a day increases the risks to recurrent miscarriage.
Clarke, R.C. and Vitzthum, O.G. (2011). Coffee: Recent developments. London: Blackwell Science.
This book presented many epidemiological literatures on maternal coffee or caffeine intake and its effect on fetal growth retardation have been cited and common findings show that a caffeine intake of more than 300 mg a day can induce this adverse effect. However, notable is the fact that differences in the literature findings correlating caffeine intake to low birth weight are present owing to the complications of findings in the presence of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking that can also directly influence the same findings. Smoking can induce hypoxia that reduces the maternal blood flow to the fetus, causing a low birth weight or fetal growth retardation. This associated relationship indicates that the effects of caffeine on fetal growth may be stronger and may be restricted to smokers.
Cohen, H., Bleha, J. and Kruglick, P. (2012). A prospective study on the effects of female and
male consumption on the reproduction endpoints of IVF and gamete intra-fallopian
transfer. Human Reproduction. 17 (7): 1746-1754.
Because caffeine has been frequently associated with delayed conception and spontaneous abortion, the authors conducted their own research showing their findings that caffeine consumption has a significant role as a risk factor for not achieving a live birth. According to the study, an intake of more than 50 mg a day in their lifetime increases the odds for pregnant women not to have a live birth. It appears that this caffeine consumption behavior can decrease the gestational age of the infant of 3.5 weeks. There has been evidence showing that caffeine can inhibit the ovulation process among healthy women because caffeine can cause the decrease of the plasma level of prolactin in their body. Caffeine can affect the female reproduction ability because of its influence to the hormonal activities. In the study, male consumption of caffeine appears to have no effect on sperm count, motility and morphology.
Curtis, K.M., Savitz, D.A. and Arbuckle, T.E. (1997). Effects of cigarette smoking, caffeine
consumption and alcohol intake on fecundability. American Journal of Epidemiology.
146 (1): 32-41.
Du Plessis, S.S., Agarwal, A. and Sabanegh, E.S. (2014). Male infertility: A complete guide to
lifestyle and environmental factors. London: Springer Science Publishing.
Goldman, M.B., Troisi, R. and Rexrode, K.M. (2012). Women and Health. USA: Academic Press.
Hanse, C.H., Thulstrup, A.M., Bonde, J.P., Olsen, J. and Bech, B.H. (2012). Semen quality
according to prenatal coffee and present caffeine exposure: Two decades of follow-up of
a pregnancy cohort. Human Reproduction. 23 (12): 2799-2805.
Kinney, A., Kline, J., Kelly, A., Reuss, M.L. and Levin, B. (2013). Smoking, alcohol and
caffeine in relation to ovarian age during the reproductive years. Human Reproduction. 22
Lentz, G.M., Lobo, R.A., Gershenson, D.M. and Katz, V.L. (2012). Comprehensive GynecologyOxford: Elsevier.
Mars, B. (2011). Addiction-free naturally. Liberating yourself from sugar, caffeine and Food. Canada: Healing Art Press.
A chapter of the book cited the findings of the Oxford Family Planning Association indicating that women who smoke are twice likely not to conceive than those who do not smoke. Men’s reproductive health is also affected by the tandem effect of smoking and caffeine intake by reducing the sperm motility and sperm count, resulting in infertility.
Meyer, C.L. (2013). The wandering uterus: Politics and the reproductive rights of women. NewYork: New York University Press.
Niederberger, C. (2011). An introduction to male reproductive medicine. London: Cambridge
Olive, D. (2013). Endometriosis in clinical practice. USA: Taylor and Francis.
Paulie, S.A. and Session, D.R. (2009). Caffeine: Does it affect your fertility and pregnancy?
Resolve for the Journey and Beyond. 4(2): 34-42.
Perkins, S.J and Thompson, J. (2007). Infertility for dummies. New Jersey: Wiley Publishing.
According to the authors, the effect of caffeine to reproductive hormone during the premenopausal period was also the focus of interest among clinical researchers because of its association with increasing the risk for the development of various forms of diseases, especially ovarian, endometrial and breast cancers. Caffeine may also influence the ovulatory function among women. The female reproductive system releases estrogen in the form of estradiol and clinical research showed a significant decrease in concentration of the said hormone among white females and it increases among the Asian female population. The authors put emphasis on the important role of estradiol in the development of a healthy egg cell and in the thickening of the endometrium in preparation for the embryo formation.
Pollard, I. (2014). A guide to reproduction social issues and human concerns. Australia: PressSyndicate of the University of Cambridge.
Preedy, V.R. (2012). Handbook of growth and growth monitoring in health and disease. London:Springer Science.
The findings of the author support the fact that caffeine can penetrate the placenta and may affect the fetus’ health. It was stated that the ability of the caffeine to cross the placenta with the inability of the fetus to metabolize it may result in growth impairment and other fetal health consequences. There are no correlative findings, however, involving the association of caffeine consumption with premature labor and delivery. There were consistent findings on the physiologic effects of caffeine to the fetus, on the other hand.
Sata, F. et. al. (2011). Caffeine intake, CYP1A2 polymorphism and the risk to recurrent
pregnancy loss. Molecular Human Reproduction. 11(5):357-360.
Schaefer, C., Peters. P. and Miller, R.K. (2012). Drugs during pregnancy and lactation:
Treatment options and risk management. Oxford: Elsevier.
The book discussed about caffeine being associated to cause fetal arrhythmia because of caffeine’s ability to cross the placenta, causing some stimulant effect to the fetal heart rate and increased fetal activity. It has been noted that pregnant women who drink more than eight cups per day may be susceptible to the risk of having fetal death, although more research is needed in order to adequately establish this potential adverse effect of caffeine during pregnancy.
Schliep, K.C. et al. (2012). Caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones among
premenopausal women in the biocycle study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.95:488-497.
Signorello, L.B. (2011). Caffeine metabolism and the risk of spontaneous abortion of normal
karyotype fetuses. Obstetric Gynecology. 98(6):1059-1066.
In the presence of a higher activity of the CYP1A2 caffeine metabolite, the chances for a spontaneous abortion are high. Moreover, a specific homogenous allele of CYP1A2 is considered to produce the higher risk of recurrent pregnancy loss among women. This finding is in contrary to the CYP1A2 CC allele where no risk for RPL was found among women. The author noted that the responses to RPL may be different among women because the condition is considered to be multi-factorial polygenetic disease. Caffeine consists of the metabolites called serum caffeine and paranxanthine. It has been found that there is an increased level of paraxanthine among women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss as compared to those who give birth to live fetus. The presence of this metabolite is associated to link caffeine with the increase recurrent pregnancy loss rate. It can be gleaned from the research findings that the incidence of recurrent pregnancy loss depends upon the susceptibility of women to have high levels of inducible homozygous CYP1A2 IF alleles and caffeine intake of more than 300 mg daily. Smoking further aggravates the incidence of pregnancy loss when it co-occurs with caffeine consumption.
Smith, B.D., Gupta, U. and Gupta, B.S. (2013). Caffeine and activation theory: Effects on health
and behavior. USA: CRC Press.
The chapter of the book discussed about the association between caffeine and the menstrual cycle. According to the authors, caffeine can affect the menstrual physiology and may alter hormonal activities. One of these effects of caffeine includes longer menses and shorter cycles, usually less than 24 days interval, which is apparent among women who consumed more than 300 mg of caffeine daily. In the same study, however, the research findings concluded that the caffeine has no significant effect on anovulation, shorter luteal longer follicular phase. This finding shows inconsistent clinical outcomes in some research studies. Drinking more than two cups of coffee every day can potentially increase the level of estrogen among females that can significantly trigger the development of endometriosis and breast pain.
Spiller, G.A. (2008). Caffeine. USA: CRC Press.
Tarnopolsky, M. (1999). Gender Differences in Metabolism: Practical and Nutritional
Implications. USA: CRC Press.
It has been noted by the author that the reduction in the clearance of caffeine from the body system in females is due to the higher level of estradiol and progesterone during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The majority of the adverse consequences of caffeine consumption to the reproductive health is also associated with smoking.
Torfs, C.P. and Christianson, R.E. (2000). Effect of maternal smoking and coffee consumption
on the risk of having a recognized Down Syndrome Pregnancy. 148 (1): 32-41.