The main focus of the article is analysis of anthropometric measurements, which were made in order to understand peculiarities of smoking effects on the development of the fetus and nutrition. This issue attracts attention of researchers, because at the same time there are many studies with controversial research results. At the time when some researchers stress on nutritional peculiarities of smoking and non-smoking mothers, the others are convinced in negative toxic effect of smoking on the fetus.
In a result of thorough studies, conducted by the authors of the article, it was proved that maternal smoking can lead to such serious problem as low birth weight. Moreover, it was also confirmed that other important parameters of the fetus growth can be affected by smoking. The value of the research for our future study lies in the explanation of mechanisms, which lead to retardation of the fetus growth. Without doubts, given article can be used as an additional confirmation of the fact that smoking can lead to numerous long-term negative effects. In addition, materials presented in this publication can be used as a ground for other researches aimed at finding out exact effects of smoking on the fetus.
Nugent, J. K. “The effects of maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking during pregnancy on acoustic cry analysis.” Child development 67 (1996): 1806-1815. Web. 31 Mar. 2011.
This article is dedicated to studies, which are aimed at finding out negative effects of smoking and alcohol abuse both on development of the fetus and new born child. In the course of the study, researchers examined about 127 Irish mothers and their newborn children. The main aim of the research was to measure neurobehavioral integrity of infants.
The value of this research lies in the fact that all studies were conducted in a certain setting, which included only those pregnant women who abused alcohol and cigarettes. Compliance with such conditions was crucial in order to receive reliable results. The results of the test proved that consumption of alcohol and smoking by pregnant mothers had strong effect on infant’s cry. It is remarkable that its acoustic characteristics were different in both cases. It was also proved that such effects did not depend on demographic and medical factors. Results, which were demonstrated in the course of the research, allow us to speak about long-term consequences, which can affect neurobehavioral organization of new born babies.
It is remarkable that achieved results may be also used in further researches to prove that negative effects are not immediate. They can affect not only the fetus and his growth, but become apparent with the flow of time. Meurs van, K. “Cigarette smoking, pregnancy and the development of fetus.” Standford Medical Review 1.1 (1999):14-16. Web. 31 Mar. 2011.
In this article the author explains negative effects of nicotine on health of people in general and the fetus in particular. In a simple and accessible manner, Krisa Van Meurs manages to explain future mothers the dangers of smoking cigarettes. In a rather short article, she manages to overview major medical researches on smoking in order to show that negative effects of smoking are extremely serious and some of them “may remain with the fetus for the rest of her life” (Van Meur, p. 14).
The main areas of interest, which are touched by the author, are the following: decreased fertility, spontaneous abortion, problems with birth weight, increased risk of childhood cancer, perinatal mortality, cognitive and intellectual deficits, placental problems and SIDS (Van Meur).
The value of the article lies in underlining the importance of interventions, which can help to educate future mothers and motivate them. Without any doubts, this article can be used in order to show existence of a variety of negative effects closely related with smoking during pregnancy. Moreover, the article clearly shows that smoking is one of the most widespread and dangerous drugs used by pregnant women all around the world.
American Academy of Pediatrics. “Exposure to prenatal smoking may lead to psychiatric problems.” Science Daily, 10 May 2010. Web. 1 Apr. 2011.
The main focus of this article is smoking and its probable effects on mental health of children. If previously, researches were mainly aimed at describing negative effects on physical health of children, today it may be often heard about numerous psychiatric diseases, which are also caused by smoking.
The article reports about a research, which was conducted by leading Finnish researchers. In a result of their study it was found out that one of the most common effects of prenatal smoking is usage of various psychiatric drugs. Such tendencies are explained by prenatal smoking, which can negatively affect brain development of a future baby.
Interestingly enough, Finnish researchers express an idea that many psychiatric problems can be prevented. The only necessary condition is to avoid smoking during pregnancy. I suggest that this article is a good example of long-term negative effects of smoking on development of the fetus and the future life of a child. Psychiatric drug abuse is a not always associated with prenatal smoking. However, results of the study show that it can be often one of the main reasons.
Baldwin, S. “Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.” Florida resource guide, 2005. Web. 1 Apr. 2011.
This publication can be useful both for professionals, who dedicate their work to prevention of alcohol abuse among pregnant women, and people, who already live with alcohol fetus effects. The guide explains the most probable effect of alcohol on the fetus and the development of such children in the future. Among the most common problems, it is worth mentioning Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and numerous cognitive and social problems which may lead to mental retardation and other birth defects.
I suggest that this publication is an incredibly valuable material, which can help to understand a variety of Fetal Alcohol Disorders and explain the real danger of alcohol abuse among pregnant woman. It is also remarkable that the publication debunks the majority of existing myths related to Fetus Alcohol Disorders. In addition it is worth saying that this material appears to be rather argumentative, because it uses many statistical data. However, the data is limited and inform only about tendencies in the USA.
Riley, E. P., Thomas, J. D., Goodlett, C. R., Klintsova, A. Y., Greenough, W. T., Hungund, B. L., Zhou, F., Sari, Y., Powrozek, T., and Ting-Kai Li. “Fetal Alcohol Effects: Mechanisms and Treatment.” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 25.5 (2001): 110-116. Web. 30 Mar. 2011.
The significance of this article lies in the fact that it sheds light on such crucial issue as consequences and effects of prenatal alcohol abuse on development of the fetus. This article can be described as a kind of a summary, which describes various researches, their methods, perspectives and consequences. Numerous findings offered in this publication do not only serve for informative purposes, but also give hope for effective methods of medical intervention. The main areas, which are touched in the article, are the following: withdrawal of pregnant women from alcohol, clinical data about cerebellar damages, problems with motor functions, a variety of rehabilitation programs, etc. Without any doubts this publication can be used as a valuable source of information in understanding seriousness of alcohol abuse among pregnant women and may also help to find new ways in treatment of health problems related to alcoholism.
Larkby, C., Day, N. “The Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.” Alcohol Health and Research World 21.3 (1997): 192-198. Web. 31 Mar. 2011.
It is well known that mothers with alcoholic syndrome may cause harm to health of their children in various ways. This article is dedicated to exposure of alcohol during pregnancy and gestation period. Researchers focus their attention on children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, discuss a variety of environmental factors, maternal peculiarities, and analyze their direct and indirect relation to alcohol abuse among pregnant women.
The authors of the article are convinced that pregnant women with alcoholic abuse endanger their future children in various ways. Thus, for instance it is crucial to take into consideration numerous unfavorable social factors as far as successful women do not usually became alcohol addicted. That is why it is considered that it is essential to understand the general picture and analyze the whole scope of the problem. As far as the majority of studies do not take into account various environmental factors, such view on the problem is rather valuable.
Ornoy, A., Ergaz, Z. “Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7 (2010): 364-379. Web. 31 Mar. 2011.
Maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy has a number of harmful effects on the fetus. One of the most vulnerable areas of the fetus health is central nervous system. However, apart from it, other organs may also suffer and be damaged. In terms of the article researchers focus their attention on a complex of changes in physical and psychiatric development of the fetus. They describe the nature of various alcohol effects on pregnant women and explain its consequences for the future child. Finally, researchers offer methods of treatment and prevention of alcohol abuse. Like many other prominent researchers, they persistently recommend avoiding usage of alcohol, as far at present moment it is still hard to identify the smallest dose of alcohol, which will not harm the future baby. This article is an essential reading, which can help to understand the scope of problem and explain potential dangers of prenatal alcohol abuse.
American Academy of Pediatrics. “Exposure to prenatal smoking may lead to psychiatric
problems.” Science Daily, 10 May 2010. Web. 1 Apr. 2011.
Baldwin, S. “Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Florida resource guide”, 2005. Web. 1 Apr.
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Nugent, J. K. “The effects of maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking during
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Ornoy, A., Ergaz, Z. “Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn,
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Riley, E. P., Thomas, J. D., Goodlett, C. R., Klintsova, A. Y., Greenough, W. T., Hungund,
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