1. Begin by providing the reference for the article, in the proper format.
2. Write an introductory paragraph that includes a reminder of what your topic is.
3. Introduce and briefly describe the study in one paragraph.
4. Then identify the following:
a) Null and alternative hypothesis
b) Sampling procedures
c) Independent and Dependent Variable/s
d) Alpha level
5. Outcome (significant results, or fail to reject the null hypothesis)
6. What 2 questions would you like to ask the researcher about the results?
7. If you were designing your own study about this topic, what would your independent variable be?
8. What would your dependent variable be?
9. What would you expect to find? For example: males will be more likely to exercise than females something related to your own topic.
Tay, R, (2010). Alberta Drivers’ Knowledge of the Road Rules. Alberta. Alberta Motor Association Foundation for Traffic Safety
Road carnage has a tremendous effect on the economic stability of a region, state or country. This is because road carnage has very adverse social and economic costs. The serious injuries resulting from traffic accidents require money to rehabilitate (AIT, 2005). Traffic accidents also reduce the working population either through serious injuries that incapacitate productive individuals or through deaths. Thus road safety is a very important subject that if not adhered to could have very far reaching ramifications (Elvik, 2009). This paper will focus on traffic safety.
Introduction and description of the study
In the period leading to this study, Alberta had been experiencing large numbers of deaths and injuries as a result of road accidents. Although the thorny issue of traffic accidents is multi-factorial in terms of cause, driver incompetency and errors are regarded by the general public and road safety professionals as the chief contributor of road accidents. Therefore, this research was designed to establish the level of knowledge on the rules of the road that Albertan driver have. This was done by correlating the pass rate of the knowledge test administered with the driving experience of the various respondents and various social demographic characteristics. The study also sought the perceptions of the drivers on the Alberta Class 7 knowledge test in addition to establishing the validity of the test.
Null and Alternative Hypothesis
In order to attain the objectives for the study the following hypothesis was explicitly tested: –
“Better knowledge of road rules would reduce the likelihood of an adverse outcome” (Tay, 2010).
This study sought to derive a sampling procedure that was representative so that the picture painted by the results of the study was as accurate as possible. In order to come up with an appropriate sample size, the study used a confidence level of 95% and a margin of error of 5%. Using a derived formula to calculate the required number of respondents to satisfy those confidence levels, the study used a sample size of 2,394 drivers.
Independent and dependent variables
The independent variables in the study were driving experience, driver behavior and the knowledge of road rules. The dependent variable in the study was road traffic collisions.
The alpha level denotes the statistical significance or the significance level of the results. The alpha level specifies the level of probability that the estimated results are unreasonable in that some non-chance factors operated to change the sample so that it was no longer representative. This particular study used an alpha level of 0.05.
The hypothesis that “Better knowledge of road rules would reduce the likelihood of an adverse outcome” (Tay, 2010) was accepted after t-test was performed on the data. Majority of the respondents failed the practice test designed to test their knowledge on road rules. Male drivers exhibited a better performance when compared to their female counterparts. A similar trend was evident among those who had taken their Class 7 Knowledge Test recently as opposed to those who had taken it a while back. The study also found out that most of the drivers perceived that a good knowledge was essential for safe driving.
Questions to the researcher
1. Why did you not use more means of dispersion in describing the data?
2. How did you control for the confounding variables in the study to make sure the data was not skewed?
If I were to design a study on this subject, I would use road accidents as my dependent variable and state of the roads, roadworthiness of the vehicle, knowledge of road rules and driving experience as the independent variables. From the research, I would expect to find that more experienced drivers performed better than lesser experienced drivers. I would also expect that the state of the roads and the roadworthiness of the vehicle to have a noteworthy effect on the occurrence rate of road accidents.
AIT (2005) Alberta Traffic Safety Plan, Edmonton: Alberta Infrastructure and Transportation
Elvik, R. (2009). The handbook of road safety measures. Bingley, UK: Emerald.
Tay, R, (2010). Alberta Drivers’ Knowledge of the Road Rules. Alberta. Alberta Motor
Association Foundation for Traffic Safety