An analysis of the poem by Sylvia Plath and Elizabeth Bishop aims to demonstrate female suffering. Women were forced to live under violent conditions and inequality circumstances. Therefore, Plath and Bishop used metaphor and irony to show the desire of feminism and equality in society. This paper shows how profound feminism has developed over the years as denoted in different writings by various Authors
Black-Phones: Postmodern Poetics within the Holocaust Poetry (Sylvia Plath Boswell), Matthew Critical Survey20.2 (2008): 53-64,112.
This journal talks about the suffering of Plath. She uses the poem ‘Lady Lazarus’ and ‘Daddy’ to describe her generation. Plath’s technique of using “Lady Lazarus” and “Daddy” as her representatives works well. Its wins her the sympathy she deserves as a Holocaust. Her father is strict and cruel. Plath is able to represent feminism, psychology and history. This shows the quality of skill she posses as a writer.
Plath makes “Daddy” and “Lady Lazarus” eccentric. This shows that they are disguised as representatives of Plath. “Daddy” portrays the elements of parody, caricature and hyperbole. The elements possessed by “Daddy” are blatant and would require keen observation. Through Lady Lazarus, the speaker differentiates art and reality. Plath concedes that reality cannot be easily understood. Lady Lazarus passes the writers message through the dramatic monologue.
Plath employs a unified artistic language and this shows her experience and theatric comeback. Her quality of work suggests that her audience benefit greatly from her performances.
Plath through Lady Lazarus’ shows pride. She precisely wants to depart from her status show historical victims what she is capable of.
Lady Lazarus is that kind of poem which reflects on issues critically. Such a poem can distort public memory. It is important to differentiate between Plath’s understanding of historical representation and her understanding of representing modern events. Through the distinction between truth and reality and self actualization, Plath is able to convey exploitation and ethics. These are the defining features of post modernism. The features can be best understood through irony.
Plath’s poem comes into action when Christianity is at its collapse. The poem indicates this through three lines. Lady Lazarus is perceived as an allegoric character depicting the past and present feminine issue. She is the demonic woman with poetic traditions. The poem develops refrain where death is perceived as a master from Germany.
At some point the poem reveals the speaker as a prostitute. The audience is left in speculation of what the opportunistic trait leads the speaker. Lady Lazarus is viewed as a victimizer. She is not the victim. This is shown through her strip of historic cannibalism, performance and language. Plath at this point offers criticism by recalling Baudrillard’s claim. “Lady Lazarus” demonstrates how art distorts the audience memory.
Plath first person speakers tend to accept a more postwar Holocaust interpretation.
Plath’s poem threatens the memory of the Holocaust through the use of metaphors and appropriations. There are many views brought by the Holocaust in creating the artistic performances. The aggressive position taken by Lady Lazarus is purely feminist. It is not a distortion of the holocaust concern. The Journal talks about the ‘black phone’. This is a mode of communication of the past. It can only transmit incommunicability. it is used as image in German poems. It is used to show poetry can connect the living and the dead. The use of the “black phone” as a motif involves arguments about the present condition of poetry. Plath uses this mode of communication to convince readers on how women suffer with no voice to speak out for them.
Gender, Sovereignty, Rights: Native Women's Activism against Social Inequality and Violence in Canada
Barker, Joanne American Quarterly60.2 (Jun 2008): 259-266,497.
In the Journal, the history of the sexist ideologies shows the struggle of native women against violence and social inequalities. Sexism existed before the 19th century. There was formulation of an act by the Canadian parliament. The act contained all colonial laws governing the rights and status of natives in Canada. There is a correlation with the former colonization although beliefs and traditions are different.
Between 1983 and 1985, amendments were made to the existing laws. The act was amended to help determine the Indian status. Baker mentions that the criteria used to determine the Indian status was “patrilineality.”
Indians were given rights to engage in government activities, access programs and services and live on reserves. The amendment rectified the practices of colonialism and sexiest ideologies.
Conflict arose between men and women. Dominant men protested against women for their efforts to change the legislation. Women were accused of being associated with a history of colonization. They appealed against the history that was represented by men, human rights legislations and feminism. Women also challenged the constitutionality of the Indian act. The act was represented by men. It provided Indians with the right to sovereignty in Canada.
Women faced a lot of criticism as the proponents of individualism and ideologies of rights. The women’s reform agenda was regarded irrelevant and dangerous to the Indian sovereignty. Barker sees these actions as discriminatory against women in the community. She regards them as violent actions which destabilize the sovereignty struggles of women.
Barker indicated that classification of gender should not have discrimination. It should not specifically point to the Indian population. Indian women rationalized violence and discrimination against women within the community.
Canada’s parliamentary act gave power to parliament over Indians and their land. The Indian act determined the parliamentary powers by defining the procedures and laws.
The great cosmic metaphor: Thinking about the “Earth our mother”
Armstrong, Luanne. (Apr 1995): 32-36
Armstrong asserts that, human beings are raised by “Mother Earth”. The Earth is dynamic and lovely. She became an environmentalist and a feminist. Armstrong sought for the variation between the definition of the Earth in North America and European. She describes the earth through features of a woman. Armstrong compares the earth to a large, warm, nurturing, fat and loving woman.
The Earth is used as a metaphor which refers to a woman. This shows that Armstrong respects nature and its components. She also respects living species and women. She appreciates nourished power in life.
Armstrong popularized environmental awareness, eco-feminism, feminism and issues that affect women on earth. Another concern mentioned is on how women are still suffering through violence. She uses global environmental issue to show facts. She focuses on how women are raped, battered, assaulted, molested and mistreated. Armstrong mentions that human nature requires respect and that all living things are equal on “Mother Earth”.
Black Internationalist Feminism: Women Writers of the Black Left, 1945-1995 Boyce-Davies, Carole
This book review majors on how the black women responded to the feminism discrimination brought forward by the modern society. Their response targeted Black Internationalism, which gives an account of the contributions made by the writers who were also anti-discrimination activists.
The works are well timely and well documented. The literature develops our knowledge about the radical blacks in positive ways. In fact, one of the writings majorly focuses on male protagonists who were part of the black left movements. The other writings mostly give an account of the contributions made the women toward of the society.
These writings advanced in the later years ensure that the writings covered the entire century in which the struggle for equal rights prevailed. The prevailing story in this century depicts a gender balance that reveals the necessity of black radicalism. There is available archival material to depict the struggle against discrimination. This shows the length of time that the discriminatory practices have been in existence. In addition, the availability of the archival materials is rather scarce because of the Freedom of Information Act.
Comparing health inequality in men and women: Prospective study of mortality 1986-96
The journal addressed the different perspectives on the existing inequalities in the health sector between men and women. The main objective is to determine the level of mortality of the society. According to the statistics gathered by the National Statistics Socioeconomic Classification, the conclusion derived implies that men tend to surpass women’s social class basing on their employment. The gradient of gender diminishes as the rank held by women rises to equal that held by men.
The journal also uses the statistics to compare how men relate to women to each other. There are certain advantages and disadvantages according to which household an individual woman belongs to or their social status. However, there are certain biases since the households, which are favored, belong to those women who are in employment. Such women do not undergo the same social ills that suffered by women who are unemployed.
There seems to be improved mortality as the social class of people gradually improves. Many social advantages accrue to women who are in classy households. As a result, they suffer fewer cases of moral discrimination from men compared to less classy women. There are certain incidences of mortality that are associated with women who are underprivileged. From the ancient world, they include domestic violence, sexual abuse, and objectification. These ills reduce the life expectancy of women who are underprivileged because they undergo many stressful conditions.
However, the research points out that there is need to examine multi-dimensions instead of focusing on two contrasting points. This is because there is no uniformity in the things that happen in the society. Great variations exist such that the women who may be suffering the worst forms of immortality are affluent. In fact, the issue of mortality comes down to individual attributes. The level of communal mortality comes down to the number of women who are living comfortably in the society.
Social differences in morbidity and the mortality of the female gender whose position measures with respect to their employment is less than that of their male counterparts. The depth of the inequalities within the health of women is very reactive to the manner in which inequality acquires its definition.
The Cambridge scale uses general material and social advantage. In addition, it bases on lifestyle, which is determined, by the type of friends that an individual chooses to have. Both of these measures apply when conducting health studies. They relate to morbidity, mortality, and behavior related to health.
It is possible to examine health inequality basing on sex differences. It uses Established validated measures while social advantage and position are considered. There are men who live in far worse conditions than some women do. As a result, sex cannot be a basis of determining the average life expectancy of a society. The length of time that an individual lives depends on n many other sociological factors.
Women & social change: feminist activism in Canada // Review
Wine, Jeri D; Ristock, Janice L Journal of Canadian Studies29.4 (Winter 1994): 162-170.
This review focuses on social service centered on the female gender. The collectives engage in service provision as a measure of response to violence propagated against women. Examples include mainstreaming and disengagement. The objective is to reach a large population of women by attempting to address their feminine issues using applicable feminist solutions.
Feminist activism seeks to establish an organizational structure that is uniquely feminist. The organization will be composed of ideologies and conceptions aimed at promoting equality of all genders. The organization will establish an environment where both men and women respect each other in terms of their professionalism. It is the first step to achieving an optimal society where recruitment and appraisal of people bases on their technical competence.
The organization will allow women to speak up for themselves and demand the same rights and privileges enjoyed by their male counterparts at the workplace. This will help them air out their grievance instead of having the so-called silent voice. There is one main drawback to achieving a gender-sensitive society. This is the number women who can stand up to address the crippling nature of the female gender.
At the end of the journal, there are valuable sources with information on the feminist situation in today’s society. It is rather unfortunate that some societies still consider females less superior than males. The change has to begin within the society. Most importantly, it must begin with the females gender itself. They are their own enemy. In addition, men should be educated on the importance of gender balance and the erosion of feminism. Empowered women are the key to a developed society since they will help men as the family breadwinners.
In conclusion, various writers have indicated the adverse effects which feminism has had on the western culture over the years. The impacts of feminism have now spread to the eastern culture. Therefore Feminism has negative effects in the society as shown by the different writers.
Boswell, Matthew. "'Black Phones': Postmodern Poetics in the Holocaust Poetry of Sylvia Plath." Critical Survey 20.2 (2008): 53,64,112. ProQuest. Web. 14 Apr. 2014.
Barker, Joanne. "Gender, Sovereignty, Rights: Native Women's Activism Against Social Inequality and Violence in Canada." American Quarterly 60.2 (2008): 259,266,497. ProQuest. Web. 14 Apr. 2014.
Armstrong, Luanne. "The Great Cosmic Metaphor: Thinking about the "Earth our Mother"." Alternatives 21.2 (1995): 32-6. ProQuest. Web. 13 Apr. 2014.
Boyce-Davies, Carole. "Black Internationalist Feminism: Women Writers of the Black Left, 1945-1995." Labour.72 (2013): 381-4. ProQuest. Web. 13 Apr. 2014.
Sacker, Amanda, et al. "Comparing Health Inequality in Men andWomen: Prospective Study of Mortality 1986-96." British medical journal 320.7245 (2000): 1303-7. ProQuest. Web. 14 Apr. 2014.
Wine, Jeri D., and Janice L. Ristock. "Women & Social Change: Feminist Activism in Canada // Review." Journal of Canadian Studies 29.4 (1994): 162-70. ProQuest. Web. 14 Apr. 2014.