The occurrence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been in the increase worldwide, especially in children and adolescents. It is usually associated with the development of a myriad of micro vascular complications such as nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. However, in my research paper, my hypothesis will focus on the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy amongst adolescents with type 1 diabetes. After reading the three scholarly peer-reviewed articles, the studies carried out will show that there has been a continued decline in the prevalence of retinopathy in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
Downie, E., Craig, M. E., Hing, S., Cusumano, J., Chan, A. K., & Donaghue, K. C. (2011). Continued Reduction in the Prevalence of Retinopathy in Adolescents
With Type 1 Diabetes Role of insulin therapy and glycemic control. Diabetes care, 34(11), 2368-2373.
This article examined the trends in the various microvascular complications in adolescents suffering from diabetes type 1 in Sydney Australia between the year 1990 and 2009. The authors of this article used analysis derived from 1,604 adolescents aged between 12-20 years of age. The analysis detected early signs of retinopathy using the fundal photography, Albumin excretion rate (AER) and the albumin –to-creatinine ratio. From this study, results showed that retinopathy declined (53,38,23 and 12%; p<0.001) the authors of the article further explains that the multiple daily injections of insulin (MDI) use increased (17,54,75, and 88%,p<0.001). They conclude that retinopathy therefore supports the recommendation of lower glycemic targets and the use of MDI in adolescents and children with type 1 diabetes. This article will be helpful in my research since it has clearly demonstrated the relationship between retinopathy and the injection of insulin in the body of the adolescent patients. Kubin, M., Tossavainen, P., Hannula, V., Lahti, S., Hautala, N., & Falck, A. (2011). Prevalence
Population-based retrospective study. Archives Of Disease In Childhood, 96 (10), 963-968.
This article focuses on a population-based study that was carried out in the Northern Osthrobothnia Hospital district in Finland with the aim of evaluating the risk factor and prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) in adolescents and children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Its sole objective was to compare the current prevalence and risk factors of retinopathy with those obtained in a study performed 17 years earlier in a similar setting. This prevalence was determined from Fundus photographs in a cross-sectional approach in children and adolescents with a T1D (n-297). The results of the study show a prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy of 7.6% in males i.e (12/158) and 16.5% in females (23/139). In addition, DR was associated with older age (p<0.001) and longer duration of Diabetes. The article concentrates on a mean age of 13.9 years for the patients participating in the study. This article is essential in my research since the study has used credible research instruments and research methodologies validating the authority of the authors. Although the article concentrates on a specific geographical area (Finland), the study will be used to highlight examples of the prevalence of diabetic Retinopathy in various parts of the world. Tasci, E., Ozbek, M., Onenli-Mungan, N., Temiz, F., Topaloglu, A., & Yuksel, B. (2011). Low