Prenatal Methylmercury, Postnatal Lead Exposure, and Evidence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Inuit Children in Arctic Québec. By: Boucher, Olivier, Jacobson, Sandra W., Plusquellec, Pierrich, Dewailly, Éric, Ayotte, Pierre, Forget-Dubois, Nadine, Jacobson, Joseph L., Muckle, Gina, Environmental Health Perspectives, 00916765, Oct2012, Vol. 120, Issue 10.
This study sought to determine the relationship between behavioral changes and ADHD in children and their prenatal diet. Basing on previous studies (that associated Methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls to impairment in attention and performance), this study on Inuit children examined amounts Lead (Pb) in their diet in relation to exposure to Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
The participants of the study were Inuit children (both boys and girls) from northern Northern Montreal. 208 children in the first recruitment and later, an extra 14 from a previous study. Inclusion criteria were children aged between 8.5 and 14.5 years, weighing not more than 2.5 kg at birth, with at least 35 weeks gestation and without significant birth defects or neurological challenges. The treatment consisted Methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) and stimulants such as dextroamphetamine sulfate (Dexedrine or Dextrostat) and dextroamphetamine/amphetamine formulation (Adderall)
The results of the study revealed that A quarter of the mothers whose children participated in the study delivered their babies under the age of 20 years. Only 20% of the children completed 11 years in school. 5 children had high and risky concentrations of Lead. High Lead (Pb) concentrations showed close relationship with teacher-reported behavioral issues. However, Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) did not show any significant association with the children's behavior.
Strength of the study
The sample children in the research included all genders and mothers from various social classes. The wide scope of the research enabled the study to increase its accuracy. The children also included those used in previous studies. By matching the previous cases, the research based on the foundations and findings of the previous studies.
Serum Perfluorinated Compound Concentration and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children 5-18 Years of Age. By: Stein, Cheryl R., Savitz, David A., Environmental Health Perspectives, 00916765, Oct2011, Vol. 119, Issue 10.
In this article, Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) are examined in the study. Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) are toxic polluntants that, according to American toxicology studies, interfere with the normal human growth and development. The study examines the association between parent or doctor report of symptoms of ADHD and Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) concentration in the children.
The participants in the study were non-Hispanic white children aged 5-18 years old of both genders. 10, 500 eligible children were tested fMethylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin)or ADHD and medication of ADHD. Treatment of the patients based on use of Methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin), buproprion hydrochloride (Wellbutrin) and imipramine (Tofranil) or nortriptyline (Pamelor)
The results showed that 12% of the participants had Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and 5% of these had used ADHD medicatio before. The geographical location of the participants contributed to the possible exposure of PFS and consequently, symptoms of ADHD.
Using grownups (of 18 years) hindered the accuracy of determining the accurate levels of ADHD and their origin in the children.
The Influence of Implicit Bias on Treatment Recommendations for 4 Common Pediatric Conditions: Pain, Urinary Tract Infection, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Asthma. By: Sabin, Janice A., Greenwald, Anthony G., American Journal of Public Health, 00900036, May2012, Vol. 102,
This article focuses on pediatricians with racial biasness and beliefs who administer medication according to the patient's race. The study aims at revealing the relationship between the attitude of pediatricians and their treatment recommendations to their patients according to race. Participants were 103 male children and 87 pediatricians. The pediatricians unconsciously (or consciously) administered drugs according to the races mostly favoring the white race.
Pediatricians prescribing a narcotic medication (for pain) in surgery decreased for African American than for their white counterparts. Stimulants such as dextroamphetamine sulfate (Dexedrine or Dextrostat) and dextroamphetamine/amphetamine formulation (Adderall).
In the article, the results indicated that a total of 4 % of all American children are diagonalized with ADHD with the highest prevalence among white children (5%). In male children, however, African American's lead with 5% and only 3% for Hispanics.
This study focused on the doctors rather than the patients. The medication administered was not effective as it was based on the races of the patients. On the other hand, it reveals the discrimination in the treatment and therefore the cause for high levels of ADHD persistent in some races.
The research was conducted on Chinese children. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is associated with the exposure to Lead. This study aimed at investigating and determining the relationship between ADHD and blood Lead level (BLL). Male children with between 4-12 years of the same socioeconomic status participated in the research. The inclusion criteria entailed evaluating the children through diagnostic interviews.
Using the Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables, the treatment entailed performing conditional variable logistic regression analyses to determine the risk and dangers of ADHD. To improve the ability to pay attention and control their inactivity, play and exercises that focuses to improve their social skills are vital to include in the curricula. ADHD cases in children were likely acquired during early childhood. Even with BLL less than 10 μg/dL, ADHD proved to be an outcome of exposing children to Lead.
The study incorporated participants of a young age whose ADHD levels could be traced back to the maternal diets and prenatal care.
Boucher, Olivier, Jacobson, Sandra W., Plusquellec, Pierrich, Dewailly, Éric, Ayotte, Pierre, Forget-Dubois, Nadine, Jacobson, Joseph L., Muckle, Gina (2009)Prenatal Methylmercury, Postnatal Lead Exposure, and Evidence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Inuit Children in Arctic Québec. By:, Environmental Health Perspectives, 00916765, Oct2012, Vol. 120, Issue 10.
Hui-Li Wang,1 Xiang-Tao Chen,1,2 Bin Yang, Fang-Li Ma,Shu Wang, Ming-Liang Tang, Ming-Gao Hao, and Di-Yun Ruan (2012). Case–Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Chinese Children.
Sabin, Janice A., Greenwald, Anthony G., (2010)The Influence of Implicit Bias on Treatment Recommendations for 4 Common Pediatric Conditions: Pain, Urinary Tract Infection, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Asthma. By: American Journal of Public Health, 00900036, May2012, Vol. 102, Issue 5
Stein, Cheryl R., Savitz, David A (2010). Serum Perfluorinated Compound Concentration and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children 5-18 Years of Age. By:., Environmental Health Perspectives, 00916765, Oct2011, Vol. 119, Issue 10.