Darwin, Charles. “Natural Selection.” A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College Writers. Ed. Lee A. Jacobus. 9th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013. 939- 43. Print.
Natural selection is a theory that was propagated by Charles Darwin. This theory states that change in evolution happens as a result of variation in production found in each generation while there is also struggle for species to exist. An individual in a given species can only survive if it is strong and fit and that it can survive in the conditions that they find themselves. The species also needs to produce offspring that is not only healthy, but also strong to survive harsh conditions. All species have got to struggle otherwise there are those that can be eliminated and suffer extinction while others will live on the entire earth. Natural selection therefore becomes a key mechanism in evolution (Jacobus 939). Variation in traits plays a crucial role in determining whether an organism is going to survive or if it is going to suffer from extinction. The genomes go on to determine the variations that are going to occur. It is at this point when variants either reproduce more than individuals with a different set of variants. The strongest of them is the one that survives and the weaker one might be eliminated for good.
Jung, Carl. “The Personal and Collective Unconscious.” A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College Writers. Ed. Lee A. Jacobus. 9th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013. 948- 53. Print.
Carl G. Jung is a psychoanalytic theorist who propagated the ideology that the human mind is structured into two, the conscious and the unconscious. He goes on to say that the conscious to be secondary to the unconscious. The unconscious according to him can be split into two distinctive parts, the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. He says that personal unconscious is specifically unique to every individual and contains forgotten and repressed memories (Jacobus 950). The collective unconscious on the other hand is universal and is shared among all human beings. It is as a result of a people’s ancestral life. It contains information about the past that involves several people totaling up to generations. This form of unconsciousness is developed over time. Aside from the conscious and unconscious mind, Jung goes on to tackle another very important aspect of humanity. This is the ‘persona’. According to him, the persona entails two masks. The first mask is that which people present for others to see. This is the perception that people have about a certain person. On the other hand there is the very personal mask which is only known to the self.
Plato. “Allegory of the Cave.” A World of Ideas: Essential Readings for College Writers. Ed. Lee A. Jacobus. 9th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013. 933- 38. Print.
In the Allegory of the Cave, Plato talks about two types of vision, a “mind’s eye” and a “bodily eye.” These types of eye are just but a metaphor for the senses. Inside the cave, there are prisoners and they only use the bodily eye. On the other hand, there is the “mind’s eye” which symbolizes a higher level kind of thinking. It gets to be used by the prisoner who is released from the cave (Jacobus 934). This means that within the cave this eye does not exist. The difference between these eyes is that whereas the “bodily eye” relies on the sensory preceptors, the “Mind’s eye” uses the brain to think. The cave on the other hand is a metaphorical expression which refers to the physical world that is filled with distorted images which represent the reality. That is why the prisoners think that the images they see cast on the wall are real. This is because their senses perceive them as so.
Jacobus, Lee. A World of Ideas. New York: Bedford Books. 2013
Plato. The Republic. Denver: P & L Publishers. 2010