Interpersonal physical violence (committed against women and children)
Human trafficking and concomitant criminal sexual exploitation of women and children in the XXI century is becoming the fastest growing and highly lucrative activity for transnational organized crime. Statistical data of different sources irrefutably specify on the tendency of increasing human trafficking in many countries of the world. It is necessary, to mark that this crime is not a problem of one state and an issue that has gained an international dimension.
The danger of human trafficking is that the buyer gets as a result of the deed of sale full control over the victim and may dispose of him or her at its own discretion. The concept of human trafficking means exploitation of people for profit. Exploitation are force labor, slave terms of labor, sexual services, deception etc. No one wants to be exploited voluntarily, therefore traffickers have a great number of acute methods of deception, or they operate using physical violence. One of the most common in Eastern Europe forms of human trafficking are false suggestions of good job and earnings abroad or in the other city. Such activities are considered to be a criminal case because international and national legal acts are being violated and criminal responsibility is being envisaged for. The concept of human trafficking is interpreted in many international documents. At the moment, the most comprehensive definition of human trafficking is given and is used in the special United Nations Organization protocol of 2000, which is called in international practice as Palermo protocol. This document proves the legal basis for preventing and combating human trafficking, especially of women and children and is intended for punishment for such criminal acts. According to the Protocol, "human trafficking" means exploitation-oriented recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving form payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person. Exploitation includes prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. It is necessary to say that the crime of human trafficking covers the offence as the using of slave labor. (UNODC, n.d.)
Offers of human traffickers are usually well hidden and can be expressed in the ads. The ad offers a popular work abroad, about which we are constantly talking with friends and acquaintances, hear on radio and television. Many people know that a lot of people from different countries really work legally and illegally abroad. Therefore, ads that hide human trafficking, offer something very ordinary in order not to seem suspicious. Young men often offered jobs in constructions, agriculture, hotels, cafes; girls - any "decent" job: nurse, janitor at the hotel, waitresses in cafes, bars, housework, agriculture etc.
1. Advertising in newspapers (work, study abroad);2. Internet (ads, chat rooms);3. Informal networks - through friends or relatives;4. Special Agent (professional recruiters);5. Illegal agency on tourism, employment or study abroad;6. Dating Services, sham marriages;7. SMS.
It is also necessary to note what factors are involved in the influx of victims in human trafficking. This is primarily poverty, the attractiveness of the alleged higher standard of living elsewhere, lack of employment opportunities, corruption in the public and private structures, organized crime, discrimination against women, political instability and armed conflicts, legal illiteracy of the population. (Web resource for combating human trafficking, n.d.)
As statistical data testifies, there are problems of exposure and investigation of human trafficking. In fact crimes of human trafficking are difficult to follow because the sale of human beings takes place in several stages, in several countries, and a lot of people are involved in the process of selling. Mostly organized crime groups lead these processes. They make a plan of commission of crime and divide main functions among themselves. One sells a person, other buys. The most significant problematic issues in the disclosure of crimes related to human trafficking are:
- crime victims of trafficking do not apply to law enforcement authorities and also do not wish to testify in court due to fear of adverse consequences for themselves and their loved ones;
- at present time there is no system of organization of the disclosure of this type of crime, which would provide for the procedure for cooperation between law enforcement authorities of countries of origin "live goods" and the law enforcement agencies of the countries of transit and destination.
Such crimes are carried out in secret; neither the seller nor the buyer is interested in publicity. If the victim is a child, as a rule, he or she becomes a subject of bargaining at that age when he still does not understand the meaning of committed actions against him. Another reason that is extremely difficult to identify the facts of sale of children - it is masked by the adoption of a registration of forged documents.
Both national and international legal norms aimed against human trafficking. Everyone makes accountable whoever in any way is involved in human trafficking, regardless citizen of which country he is, regardless where the crime was committed - in one or more countries. In any way, turning people into a commodity is considered a crime and is subject to severe punishment. The process of human trafficking takes place mostly in a few countries. For example, in Russia people are recruited, transported through Poland and Germany are forced to work. This is an international crime and such criminal acts are more difficult to investigate, because it requires the cooperation of several countries. The investigation continues for a long time.
According to the research there were identified high-risk groups which most likely can be involved in human trafficking. By the age: children and adolescents (under 18), young people 18-25 years, young women (under 30 years). Location: small towns, villages, newcomers from the village to the city or from a small town in a big. Employment: the unemployed, including graduates of schools, colleges, boarding schools that do not have a permanent job, living on odd jobs; women in prostitution; women (and maybe men) engaged in entertainment and modeling; students, especially newcomers, living in a hostel; migrants working on temporary jobs. Education: lack of education, interrupted schooling (incomplete secondary), the lack of professional education (higher or secondary) professional education or incomplete. Behavioral intentions: with migration intentions, including consonants on illegal migration; oriented work or marriage abroad, including clients of employment agencies abroad (especially women), women who want to marry a foreigner, "mail-order brides" - client of marriage agencies; psychologically prone to risky behavior, survivors of violence, including sexual, etc.
Trafficking of women for sexual exploitation has acquired a transnational character, and performed with the use of methods that can be called new forms of slavery.
Trafficking of women is a highly profitable business with low risk comparing to drug or arms trafficking. The profit exceeds the cost of acquiring women by 5-20 times. Investigation of the International Organization for Migration indicates that trafficked women receive very little money; however the incomes of merchants are enormous. In Israel Russian or Ukrainian woman earns for pimp who controls her from 50,000 to 100,000 dollars a year. (IOM, n.d.)
Recruiters, traffickers and pimps who are engaged in trafficking of women for sexual exploitation developed common methods of actions. It is possible to consider the most commonly used methods.
The first method is ads in the newspapers that offer excellent work abroad which does not require high skills (waitresses, babysitters). Some ads offer good salaries to young, attractive women who agree to work as dancers or hostesses. Women are recruited through social events such as photo contests. The process is usually complex, fraud is detail thought out to convince women that the job opportunity is real. It is estimated that up to 20 per cent of trafficked women were recruited through ads in the press.
Another method of recruitment - "marriage agencies" sometimes called the bride-mail-order or international dating service. According to information of the International Organization for Migration, all agencies bride-mail-order that offer women from the former Soviet Union are under the control of organized criminal groups. Many of these agencies operate via the Internet. Recruiters use "marriage agencies" as a means to search for women who want to travel or emigrate. This route into the sex industry exists in several forms. Recruiters can be traders or work for them. A woman can meet a man who promises to marry. This man can use the woman himself for a while, then forcing her to pornography and later sell in the sex industry, or directly deliver the woman to a brothel. (IOM, n.d.)
Some traders use original documents and visas for legal entry of women to the country of destination. A woman can be transported by pimps from country to country by legal tourist visas. In other cases, women get false documents. In that event a woman is more vulnerable after her arrival to the destination country, because she is located there illegally. If the police discover her, she will be arrested and deported.
The most common way to recruit women is through friends and acquaintances that enjoy their confidence. Pervasive phenomenon called "second wave" when trafficked women return home to recruit other women. As soon as a woman is taken out and got stick in sex industry, she has few options. One of the few ways to avoid the brutality of forced sex every day with several men is turn from victim to perpetrator. To do this, trafficked women return home to recruit new victims.
Regardless of the method of recruitment, most women do not expect a sexual exploitation and violence. When the woman arrives to the country of destination, the dealer or pimp tells her that she would not work as a waitress, nanny, or anyone else who she was offered, and would work as a prostitute. The methods used to control women after arrival to the destination country, include: the confiscation of documents, violence, threats to harm family members and debt bondage. Even the woman, who voluntarily leaves her country for prostitution, does not expect the level of manipulation, deception and coercion, which she would be subjected.
There are various forms of trafficking of women. One of them is auctions in sympathy with the African trading markets that worked in 18 - 19 centuries. In Milan, Italy, in December 2001, police uncovered a gang that conducted the auction of women trafficked from the former Soviet Union. Women were stripped, shown and sold on average for US $ 1,000. Traffickers and pimps used extreme violence to control women and territory. Women are killed as a warning to competing traffickers and pimps and as punishment for refusing to engage prostitution. In two closed cases, women who resisted were killed as a warning to other women. In Istanbul, Turkey, two Ukrainian women were thrown from the balcony and killed in the face of their six Russian girlfriends. In Serbia, the Ukrainian woman who resisted was publicly beheaded.
Trafficked women almost do not get the support and assistance of the public and social services, as soon as they fall under the control of traffickers or pimps. In host countries, they are treated as criminals, as prostitutes or illegal immigrants. When they are discovered, often during police raids, they are arrested and placed in prison awaiting deportation. There is almost no services dealing with victims of trafficking, who are suffering from injuries, ill-health and physical disorders.
A study of women's health in the sex industry shows that these women have a serious problem, often life-threatening. Women suffer from infectious diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, violent injuries, drug or alcohol addiction, depression and other mental health problems as a result of injury.
The objects of trade are not only women, but also children. The main objectives of this are sexual exploitation and adoption.
The social factors contributing to trafficking of children associated with the condition of the family and the child's situation. The depreciation of the family, family ties, the sanctity of the birth and upbringing of children is a powerful criminogenic factor in our time for many countries. Modern family actually does not perform the role of a full-fledged social institution capable of ensuring the inculcation of basic social norms and moral principles. Statistics of any state points to the numerous divorces and unpreparedness of the married couples for valuable domestic life.
For example, studies show that in women's prisons women often abandoned their children after first marriage to fostering by grandmothers or these children join the ranks of street homeless children that live at attics, basements, and various dining rooms and cafes. In Moscow about 50 thousand children live at attics, basements and streets. These children can be like a living product plunged into the car and removed abroad.
Human trafficking is one of the world`s biggest problems, so I think that first of all there should be done international cooperation in the investigation of this complex crime by interaction of law enforcement authorities of countries of origin "live goods" and the law enforcement agencies of the countries of transit and destination. In addition, each country should as much as possible give special attention to this type of crime, as the basic rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Article 3. «Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person»; Article 4. «No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms»; Article 5. «No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment». (United Nations, n.d.)
On this occasion I suggest to consider my program of physical violence against women and children. I chose Ukraine as an example of a country of this program. A choice on this country fell not by chance. In Ukraine the problem of human and children trafficking was always on agenda and with the start of fighting in the East the situation has worsened and has become one of the most pressing social problems in the country. Despite the fact that the government for several years tries to put an end to this problem, it is still a reality.
One of the recent examples of combating this problem is a joint special operation carried out in 31 July 2015 by officers of the State Border Service of Crime associated with Trafficking Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine that took place in the Transcarpathian region. Thus, the security forces at the checkpoint "Shehini" in Lviv region did not allow the export of Ukrainian in Poland for the purpose of sexual exploitation abroad. Also during the search operations, law enforcement officers detained a number of members of the criminal group.
However, despite all these efforts the problem of women and children trafficking cannot be solved at least for the reason that the war in the Donbas region has created favorable conditions for trafficking. Increasingly, human rights organizations, the media report about attempts to remove Ukrainian children in Russia, ostensibly to "salvation", women are forcibly compelled to serve the soldiers, including sexually.
Ukraine is the largest country among the countries that are completely within Europe. Accordingly, the scope of my program will cover an area of approximately 603.7 thousand square kilometers.
Regarding to the target audience, these are women and children. Resident population according to 2015 amounts to 42 million 854 thousand. Women make up by 54% of the total population that is about 22 million. The number of minors is about 5 million. That is, the program is focused on the approximately 27 million people. For its implementation will take approximately from 1 to 1.5 million dollars.
Regarding the structure of the program, and measures to combat women and children trafficking are complex, but they can be divided into several main blocks. The first of them is the improvement of national legislation. It is necessary to fully adapt the national legislation in accordance with paragraphs of international treaties aimed at combating women and children trafficking. Resolve at the legislative level the problematic issues in areas such as employment and education abroad, international adoption, activities of travel, marriage and model agencies. Legalize the concept of "victim of trafficking"; more clearly define measures for the protection and rehabilitation of victims.
Also, authorities should adopt as soon as possible a law on internally displaced persons, to keep records of all emigrants from the ATO zone - especially children. This need is linked closely to the conflict in the East of the country, because in addition to the population, caught in the occupied territories, in the area of even greater risk is more than a million people who have fled their homes. According to information of the United Nations Organization because of the military conflict more than 341 thousand Ukrainians removed to the neighboring countries, another 800-900 thousand people moved from the Donbass to other regions of the country. However unofficial counts show that in fact they may be almost by three times greater. It is difficult to monitor the safety of the resident population and protect it from the danger of "becoming a living product" and it is almost impossible to follow this process with respect to the migratory people, and therefore there must be at the legislative level a record of all migrations that make Ukrainians on the territory of the country and beyond it.
The second block is the activity of state bodies, public associations and their coordination. In Ukraine, there is quite underdeveloped relationship, information exchange and coordination between the relevant authorities involved in the fight against human trafficking and law enforcement. There is a separate department in the structure of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - the Department of the fight against crimes related to human trafficking. However, this body exists only formally. The organ doesn’t have its own website and on the website of the Ministry of Internal Affairs there is neither any section dedicated to this department. Most of the population does not even know of its existence. On this basis, I believe that it is necessary to create a real operating governmental body responsible for the solution to this problem, which will have its own website where everyone who need help will find all the information on the activities of the Department and where will be shown detailed information about how to contact its employees and seek for help.
Additionally, the annual meetings should be initiated - seminars with the aim of coordinating the efforts of executive authorities, local governments, community organizations, charities to identify measures to prevent women and children trafficking.
It is also necessary to develop and introduce a system of training and retraining bodies and educational institutions, social protection, social services for the prevention of violence against women and children and trafficking; prepare and issue for secondary education programs, information materials of legal education, protect the interests of women and children; develop and implement programs and teaching special courses in institutes of higher education, conducting didactic workshops, advocacy for the prevention of violence against women and children and trafficking; initiate awareness-raising campaigns to prevent women and children trafficking; create a special series of radio programs, the individual columns in the print media to highlight issues concerning the prevention of women and children abuse and trafficking; ensure production and distribution of special editions (newsletters, brochures, memos, etc.) directed against violence and trafficking of women and children; to establish in the printed media of state ownership heading "Rights of Women" and "Children's Rights".
In addition, the problem of human trafficking is closely linked to the pressing problem of corruption in the country. An example is the fact that some law enforcement officers not only struggling with this problem, and in some cases, assist criminal groups who trade humans for a certain monetary compensation. And this problem is associated with the low socio-economic level of development of the country. Human trafficking thrives on a large scale in countries and regions with low-income among the population. Accordingly, the problem of human trafficking in addition to the low level of social and legal development of the country, also has deep economic roots. Therefore besides creation of the organs specialized on this problem it is necessary to conduct reforms in economic and social spheres.
The next block is an international cooperation. It is necessary to develop a mechanism for cooperation with non-governmental organizations of foreign countries, which have the purpose of providing assistance to victims of women and children trafficking; continue to cooperate with relevant government agencies and non-governmental organizations of the United States to conduct awareness-raising campaigns among the population of Ukraine on prevention of women and children trafficking, implementation of the program of socio-economic support for women in Ukraine; prepare and conduct a common Ukrainian-American seminar on preventing and combating women and children trafficking, provision of assistance to victims of such crimes; develop and submit to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine proposals regarding law enforcement cooperation of Ukraine with the relevant authorities of the countries where the trafficking of women and children acquired the largest scale; to consider the preparation and conclusion of an agreement between Ukraine and these countries on the prevention of human trafficking; to continue cooperation with the International Organization for Migration in carrying out awareness-raising campaigns among the population of Ukraine on prevention of human trafficking, organizing assistance to individuals who have been victims of such crimes.
International Organization for Migration. Mission in Ukraine (n.d.). Combating human trafficking. Retrieved January 29, 2016, from <http://www.iom.org.ua/en/combating-human-trafficking>
United Nations (n.d.) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved January 29, 2016, from <http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html>
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes (n.d.) United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto. Retrieved January 29, 2016, from <https://www.unodc.org/unodc/treaties/CTOC/>
Web resource for combating human trafficking (n.d.) Prevention. Retrieved January 29, 2016, from <http://www.humantrafficking.org/combat_trafficking/prevention>