Human resource management (HRM) has become a major business idea in the past few decades. Its prominence has increased to a degree where companies have adopted it as a key business strategy. HRM is the function within a given company, which concentrates on the management of, recruitment, as well as offering direction to people who work in these organizations. Today, it is a major strategic tool performed by line managers. The company’s human resources department is accountable for creating, implementing and/or supervision of policies governing worker behavior and the behavior of the firm toward its workers. In addition, staffing is the nucleus constituent of HRM. Staffing deals with setting guidelines, as well as procedures to show recruiting, and placement (Kato & Morishima 943).
Differences between HRM in Japan and the United States
The Japanese HRM model has frequently been acknowledged as a key factor to the rise of the Japanese economy, chiefly during the 1980s. Nevertheless, the same Japanese HRM, which till lately has been much illustrious in the United States, and presented as a role-model to be learned from, is now more and more perceived as old-fashioned, and necessitating considerable reform. Others, nevertheless, continue to emphasize its intrinsic strengths and warn against noteworthy change. On the other hand, the American comprehending of HRM has conventionally been perceived by Japanese managers with cynicism. It is regarded as contradicting the wide concept of ‘respect for people’ and the aim of ‘human resource development’ that is embedded into the Japanese management philosophy, in several ways. In specific, the idea of defining the employees of the corporation as ‘resources’ (instead of members of the company ‘family’) that require to be managed (instead of ‘developed’) runs divergently to the key concepts of traditional Japanese HRM. Nevertheless, in response to the deep crisis of the Japanese economy, as well as management replica, which has lasted for more than a decade now, it is clear that some shift toward Western management values is taking place (Storey 5).
Furthermore, thus, mirroring the economic growth patterns, adoption of Japanese HRM values appears in the U.S. to be mostly an issue of the past, while the subject of adoption of American HRM policies is more present in Japan than ever. The key subject in Japan seems to be to find a new balance between the continuance of traditional (human resource) management principles, and changes enthused by American approaches. Concerning finally the detailed U.S understanding of (human resource) management, it has to be accomplished that this is a theme of no significant weight in Japanese business research, if it is considered at all (Rowley & Keith 23).
With regard to the adoption of elements of the American HRM by Japanese firms, it is prominent that the main amount of items the Japanese managers raise are concerned with the decline of the seniority philosophy: “performance orientation” (by far the most frequently cited feature by the Japanese), “result and objective orientation,” “performance, as well as outcome oriented remuneration,” and shifts away from the seniority principle. Thus, these statements once more mirror an important reversal in the priority setting of Japanese HRM. Further to the seniority standard, all-time employment and the formation of generalists have often been regarded as key aspects of the conventional Japanese HRM. In addition, Japanese firms, as a group, are shown to have more ethnocentric staffing practices as well as policies, and they experience more global human resource management problems than do American companies (Harzing, 245).
Harzing, A. K. Response Styles in Cross-National Mail Survey Research: A 26- Country Study, International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 2006, 6, 243-266.
Kato, T., and Morishima, M. The Nature, Scope and Effects of Profit Sharing in Japan: Evidence from New Survey Data, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2003, 14, 942-955.
Pudelko, M. The End of Japanese-Style Management? Long Range Planning,2009, 42, 4, 439- 462.
Rowley, Chris, and Keith Jackson. Human Resource Management: The Key Concepts. London: Routledge, 2011. Print.
Storey, John. Human Resource Management: A Critical Text. London: Thomson, 2007. Print.