Legionella is one of the conditions that for a long time has been researched on. Several authors and researchers have come up with their views concerning this condition and present their views in books, journals, and even websites. In the annotated bibliography below, a clear indication of the contribution of each author is given. The relevance of the reference is also shown, giving readers the reason why they should take the references.
Bartram, J., Chartier, Y., Lee, J. V., Pond, K., & Surman Lee, S. (Eds.). (n.d.). Legionella and the prevention of legionellosis. (Original work published World Health Organization 2007) Retrieved from <http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/emerging/legionella.pdf>
This is a 252-page book published by then world health organization (WHO) includes almost all the relevant data on legionella and the avoidance of Legionnaires disease. The book illustrates main subjects like legionellosis, signs of disease (clinical signs), treatment, management, and avoidance approaches. The wealth of information entailed in this book is wide that would resemble a textbook. The validation of the publisher is clear from the worldwide identification of the firm on disease management and preventions; hence, I take this world health organization (WHO) as one of the most significant reliable resources accessible currently. The thoughts illustrated in the book matches those of the centers of the disease (CDC) in the United States’ notion on the infection. The demonstration of the data is efficient for a varied range of audience; it is precisely understandable by the ordinary public including the scholars.
The WHO is authority on the subject because it is a known and worldwide-accepted health organization.
McCoy, W. (2005). Preventing Legionellosis. USA: IWA Publishing.
This book written by McCoy in 2005 discusses on the main issues and causation of the Legionellosis. It indicates how far the disease has gone since its discovery and gives the approximate number of people who had died for the infection. The author illustrates that many people are still vulnerable even after they had known the signs and ways of preventing it. He further suggests that successful treatment of the disease is not significant as such since the survivors suffer long-term incapacitating consequences. He asserts that most patients of legionella were left to indecent maintained structure water systems. Most legionellosis issues are significantly an outcome of inadequate water treatment and poor water system control. According to the author therefore, most of these issues and preventable.
In addition, he claimed that legionellosis is the most difficult type of pneumonia, which individuals get from being left to water systems. Thousand of victims suffer because of negligence and ignorance since these cases are treatable by use of technologically proven hazard assessment and control policies. In fact, he still emphasize in his book that legionellosis still affects human being due to public awareness is not concern of real risk, codes of exercise and standards are not enough or executed, technologically focused hazard evaluation and management is not executed, and finally the commercial disagreements of desires hinder appropriate practice.
The author of this book is a professional in the field and therefore the book is recommended for use in health research.
Marre, R. (2002). Legionella. USA: ASM Press.
This book written by Marre in 2002 illustrates clearly that the first incident of legionella was reported in Sweden after a laboratory test. The author mainly what the Swedish did after realizing the outbreak of the disease. The author Marre claimed that the Swedish Act for communicable diseases, clinicians have to report all diagnosed cases of legionellosis starting form 1 July 1989. This book however deals with many cases of and experiences that occurred in Sweden. The most noticeable case is that which occurred in 1991. This happened because of poor sanitation at the hospital premises where confirmed 29 people were infected after taking a shower. The author then deals with cases of legionella out side Sweden where most affected patients were tourists. This is an infectious disease and the affected travelers can transfer the disease easily from one place to another.
The author demonstrated further the severity of the outbreak all over the world as people travel to various places infecting the indigenous with the deadly disease. As a way of precaution, he provided possible measures of diagnosing, preventing, and treatment of the disease. Those living in apartments are at greater risks because they share some of their facilities and this could be the main source of the outbreak. The book ha chats to illustrate the spread of the disease across various groups making it precise and easy to understand the facts at a glance.
The author has done so many researches in this field, therefore this book will be most appropriate in my research.
World Health Organization. Water Sanitation and Health (WSH). Legionella and the prevention of legionellosis. Retrieved on April 9, 2011, from <http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/emerging/legionella_rel/en/>
This book gives a thorough overview of the sources, ecology, and laboratory determination of legionella. It gives guidance on evaluation and control of risks related to possible vulnerable surroundings, like cooling towers, spa baths, and pools. The book also illustrates vital measures to curb or sufficiently manage the susceptibility risk to legionella. The book still defines some related terms to which most clinicians use in identification of the disease. According to the book, legionella results to high degree of morbidity and deaths in exposed individuals thus suspicion of outbreak need swift actions to curb its spread. Thus publication evaluation principles and practices for outbreak control and the organizational duties and liabilities of the outbreak management group.
It defines legionella as an assortment of communicable diseases that surfaced in the second half of the 20th century, and which led to legionella pneumophila and associated legionella bacteria. The harshness of legionella differs from placid feverish illness (Pontiac fever) to a likelihood deadly type of pneumonia (legionnaires infection), which would affect anyone, nevertheless, it affects those who are vulnerable and exposed because of illness, age, immunosuppression or other related risks like smoking. It stressed that water is the main natural resources for legionella and bacteria are present worldwide in different forms and artificial aquatic surroundings.
The WHO has played an active role in researching about diseases and I a worldwide known organization.
Patient Facts: Learn More about Legionnaires’ disease [Legionellosis Resource Site]. (2008, June 27). Retrieved March 14, 2011, from National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases website: http://www.cdc.gov/legionella/patient_facts.htm
The center of disease control (CDC) demonstrates brief exact information on the Legionnaires’ disease. The truths illustrated are focused at the common public, patients, and their families to give response to most common problems. It offers a definition of the infection; illustrates the signs alongside its potential treatments are demonstrated. In addition, the harshness, vulnerability of the diseases is presented. The CDC is one of the United States health sections, which is realistic and has power of disease management and avoidance; hence, I take the data published by the team as dependable. The entailed information is precise, matching those of the World health organizations data on the disease. It further gives the objectives of the source as to educate, manage, and minimize disease from spreading. There is no doubts that the information presented are biased in relation to the facts they give.
The National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases is a research databases which has been used universally to find the possible causes and cure for many of the illnesses.
Isberg, R., O’Connor, T., and Heidtman, M. The Legionella pneumophila replication vacuole: making a cosy niche inside host cells. Nature reviews Microbiology, 7 Jan. 2009 pp. 13-24.
This article discusses the process of pathogenesis of legionella pneumophila as being obtained from its development inside lung macrophages following the inhaling of aerosol from infected water sources. Desire in these bacteria came from its capacity to influence host cell vesicular-trafficking routes and develop a membrane-bound duplication vacuole leading to a shape of intravacuolar pathogens. This article deals more with the spread, multiplication, and establishment of legionella. It mainly occurs in protein form, which forms various substrates for trafficking the pathogens and directing to the host cell. The article also concentrate on the strategies, which L. pneumophila uses to develop intracellular development and analyses the reason why this microorganism has sum an exceptional number of transferred substrate which are the main focus of the host cells.
The author of this article is an expert in medical research and has therefore brought facts to the ground in this article.
Coers, J., Vance, R., Fontana, M., and Dietrich, W. Restriction of Legionella pneumophila growth in macrophages requires the concerted action of cytokine and Naip5/Ipaf signaling pathways. Cellular microbiology, 9 (10) Oct. 2007.
This article deals with different types of legionella multiplications. From a simple Macrophage c57BL/6 (B6) mouse, pull intracellular development of legionella pneumophila while A/J macrophages are essentially tolerant. The articles discusses on the approaches that B6 macrophages limits legionella development sticking to poorly understood, but recognized to need the cytosolic microbe sensors. The article still anticipates that Naip5 and Ipaf could act in relation with other antimicrobial alerting routes in macrophages. Likewise, macrophages missing NAi5 and or Ipaf alerting were tolerant despite the NAi5 that were needed. The article further illustrates this multiplication and mechanism of attacks to the body in progressive stages.
This article is used by many researches and is therefore recommended for any study in this field.
Blatny, J., Reif, B., Skogan, G., Andreassen, O., Hoiby, E., Ask, E., Waagen, V., Dag, A., and Caugant, D. Tracking Airborne Legionella and Legionella pneumophila at a Biological Treatment Plant. Environmental science & technology, 44 (22), 2010 8712-8717.
This article discusses the biological treatment of plants that are regularly applied to reduce the organic impact of substance in wastewater from wood industries. Aeration ponds in such plants give a maximum development surrounding for several microorganisms, in addition to legionella species. To analyze if legionella would spread as aerosols from the water system and moved by wind, the article demonstrate this and the influence of MAS-100 and STA 204 were applied to gather air samples straight above, upwind, and downwind of aeration ponds for a period of 4 months. Analytical fluid dynamics were applied prior to approximate the aerosol routes and to establish appropriate air collection locations. Many legionella species, such as legionella pneumophila were classified in the article in a downwind from the ponds, however, in common neither upwind nor external routes. The article also determines the greatest concentration of practical legionella straight above the aeration ponds. Molecular typing showed that a unit clone L. pneumophila was multiplied from the pond at the time of study. Hence, the article therefore, illustrates that aerosol creation at aeration ponds of biological treatment tools would have L. pneumophila that can be moved by wind to the environment. The article used different methods to reach at these conclusions and confirm that aerosols can create a problem to the surrounding occupational health.
This article is one of the few which is done from a modern point of view. It is therefore an important reference on this research.
Thomas Spirig, André Tiaden, Patrick Kiefer, Carmen Buchrieser, Julia A. Vorholt, and Hubert Hilbi. The Legionella Autoinducer Syntheses LqsA Produces a α-Hydroxyketone Signaling Molecule. Journal of biological chemistry, 283 (2008) 18113-18123.
This is a comprehensive article dealing with so many issues concerning legionella diagnosis, symptoms, and prevention. It first starts with the discussion of bacteria causing this type of disease and how it can be influenced to spread faster. The authors collectively agree that opportunistic pathogen legionella pneumophila duplicates inhuman lung macrophages and in open amoeba. To take in the movement across host cells, L. Pneumophila changes form a replicative to a transmissive stage. L. pneumophila has a gene cluster homologous to the vibrio cholera cqsAS quorum detecting the system, indoctrinating a certain synthesis, which produce a response and act in, is capacity to replicate once more. The article further gives various processes that are involved in the development process of the pathogens.
In addition, the authors attempted to define legionella pneumophila as a ubiquitous bacterium that insists in biofilms and spread in the surrounding host including amoeba. The article has experimental proofs tat can be use to confirm the allegations of the replication of the bacteria and how it infects and cause illness in human beings. Form the experiments carried out by the authors there is a comprehensive result discussion with different suggestions on how the bacteria can be control and incase already existing in human bodies, how can it be treated.
The most renowned experts in health write this journal publication and it is therefore an important reference in the study.
Jacobson Kalen, Miceli Marisa, Tarrand Jeffrey, and Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios. Legionella Pneumonia in Cancer Patients. 87 (3) 2008 pp. 152-159.
This article tries to unearth the various factors that legionella is capable of and yet most people have not studied its effects in relation to other disease like cancer. The authors discovered that legionella is an essential cause of nosocomial and community- obtained pneumonia in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed victims throughout the world. Nevertheless, the authors assert that the clinical course and maximum antibiotic treatment of legionella pneumonia (LP) in the sick with cancer is unclear. They carried out research the retrospective risk aspects, clinical appearance, and the results showed that a very high percentage of patients had related hematologic malignancy. The author also used different diagnostic tools to establish the credibility of their hypothesis. In their studies, the authors confirmed that there was no use of temporal or geographic clustering on the matter. A large proportion of the issues had multilobar or pulmonary engagement.
Patients with cancer had other complications and average mean response to therapy according to the authors was 8 days implying that these victims needed extended duration of treatment. However, they finally claimed that LP was uncommon disease in their study groups, but is related to increased morbidity and deaths. Treatment of LP in patients with cancer would need extended duration track with a schedule, which includes a current macrolide or quinolone.
This is a book with succinct cases which have been drawn from the most researched studies.
Flannery, Brendan; Gelling, Lisa B.; Vugia, Duc J.; Weintraub, June M.; Salerno, James J.; Conroy, Michael J.; Stevens, Valerie A.; Rose, Charles E.; Moore, Matthew R.; Fields, Barry S.; Besser, Richard E. Reducing Legionella Colonization of Water Systems with Monochloramine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12 (4) Apr2006, p588-596.
This article deals with various ways of handling the legionella infection right from the emergence of the symptoms all the way to the full treatment of the disease. The authors combined efforts in ensuring that the article is informative on all areas pertaining to the disease and its causes. Despite the disease being preventable, some people could not just avoid exposing themselves of hazardous situations. The authors have put strongly that there are characteristics and symptoms that one should always avoid keep the disease controlled. Since water is the major body, which harbors harmful bacteria, people should avoid as much as possible those place that are not good to the human health.
The authors illustrated different methods of collecting samples and analyzing to get the desired results and form their findings, all water body systems have the potential of carrying these bacteria that cause legionella pneumophila.
This journal contains the views of the most prominent authors, who have written several publications in health matters.
Atlas, Ronald M. Legionella: from environmental habitats to disease pathology, detection, and control. Environmental Microbiology, 1 (4) 1999 p283-293
The author Atlas in 1999 found out that most of the bacteria that were affecting human being most of them came from the environment. These were microorganism tat could be prevented from interacting with human live, but instead they have become part of the system. Legionella species can obtained from the surrounding sources mainly water bodies. Aquatic biofilms that are extensively available in nature also in medical and dental tools are the breeding ground for legionella. Thus there is the need to thoroughly have these situation controlled for we exposed ourselves to these bacteria without knowing. The author further warns on the outbreak of such disease as the worst, since once it is out of control to restrain it take a lot of time.
This article covers all the issues of control and disease pathology. It draws its research from several studies.
Miller, Richard D.; Koebel, D. Anne. Legionella Prevalence in Cooling Towers: Association with Specific Biocide Treatments. ASHRAE Transactions. 112 (1) 2006 p700-708,
The author of this article discuss on the chemical biocide management in cooling towers as a vital area of the general avoidance plan against legionella and legionnaires disease. The main objective of this article was to evaluate a big population of cooling towers (2,590) for the occurrence degree of legionella and associate the information with a given biocide treatments. On evaluation, the authors found that legionella occurred at about 13% of cooling tower and 18% of healthy towers had legionella levels. From their results, they made a conclusion that legionella was present in all water systems and would transmit diseases as nay other bacteria. They also did an extensive study to determine which chemical might be useful in fight against these bacteria that were responsible for legionnaire’s disease. Form the laboratory test they came up with various chemicals of fighting the bacteria.
This article is used worldwide by the most prominent colleges and universities.
Atlas, Ronald M. Legionella: from environmental habitats to disease pathology, detection, and
control. Environmental Microbiology, 1 (4) 1999 p283-293
Bartram, F. World Health Organization. Water Sanitation and Health (WSH). Legionella and the
prevention of legionellosis. Retrieved on April 9, 2011, from
Bartram, J., Chartier, Y., Lee, J. V., Pond, K., & Surman Lee, S. (Eds.). (n.d.). Legionella and
the prevention of legionellosis. (Original work published World Health Organization
2007) Retrieved from
Blatny, J., Reif, B., Skogan, G., Andreassen, O., Hoiby, E., Ask, E., Waagen, V., Dag, A., and
Caugant, D. Tracking Airborne Legionella and Legionella pneumophila at a Biological
Treatment Plant. Environmental science & technology, 44 (22), 2010 8712-8717
Coers, J., Vance, R., Fontana, M., and Dietrich, W. Restriction of Legionella pneumophila
growth in macrophages requires the concerted action of cytokine and Naip5/Ipaf
signaling pathways. Cellular microbiology, 9 (10) Oct. 2007.
Flannery, Brendan; Gelling, Lisa B.; Vugia, Duc J.; Weintraub, June M.; Salerno, James J.;
Conroy, Michael J.; Stevens, Valerie A.; Rose, Charles E.; Moore, Matthew R.; Fields,
Barry S.; Besser, Richard E. Reducing Legionella Colonization of Water Systems with
Monochloramine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12 (4) Apr2006, p588-596.
Isberg, R., O’Connor, T., and Heidtman, M. The Legionella pneumophila replication vacuole:
making a cosy niche inside host cells. Nature reviews Microbiology, 7 Jan. 2009 pp. 13-
Jacobson Kalen, Miceli Marisa, Tarrand Jeffrey, and Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios. Legionella
Pneumonia in Cancer Patients. 87 (3) 2008 pp. 152-159.
Marre, R. (2002). Legionella. USA: ASM Press.
McCoy, W. (2005). Preventing Legionellosis. USA: IWA Publishing.
Miller, Richard D.; Koebel, D. Anne. Legionella Prevalence in Cooling Towers: Association
with Specific Biocide Treatments. ASHRAE Transactions. 112 (1) 2006 p700-708.
Patient Facts: Learn More about Legionnaires’ disease [Legionellosis Resource Site]. (2008, June
27). Retrieved March 14, 2011, from National Center for Immunization and Respiratory
Diseases website: http://www.cdc.gov/legionella/patient_facts.htm
Thomas Spirig, André Tiaden, Patrick Kiefer, Carmen Buchrieser, Julia A. Vorholt, and Hubert
Hilbi. The Legionella Autoinducer Syntheses LqsA Produces an α-Hydroxyketone
Signaling Molecule. Journal of biological chemistry, 283 (2008) 18113-18123.