Participative Management and Job Satisfaction
Participative management involves encompassing ordinary employees in the everyday decision making. Notably, employees become more responsible of their workload and improve on their productivity and quality of their work. Job satisfaction on the other hand entails leadership dictating the success of the organization. The employers need top-notch leadership skills to motivate the employees therefore improving the quality of their work. The following literature reviews will explore case studies and hypothesis improves the relationship between employers and employees therefore increasing job satisfaction. That relate to these two important factors.
Yousef (2000) scrutinizes the role of mediation in the typical organization. He also investigates on the benefits of this activity in relation to job satisfaction as well as performance in a multicultural environment. This promoted participative leadership creating a better work place for both the employer and the employee. He further investigates the moderating features of multiculturalism in job satisfaction and performance. The conclusion was multiculturalism moderates leadership behavior and job satisfaction.
Pardo-del-Val, et al. (2012) goes deeper to clarify that despite participative leadership, decisions made in an organization can never be equal. This is best known as decision-making hierarchy. It is actually to be viewed as an advantage since it helps in classifying the types of decisions at hand. The employees are able to decide the type of action to take and assistance to seek depending on the type. The three types are operational, tactical, and strategic.
Employee empowerment in most cases is directly related to job contentment. Pelit, Öztürk, & Arslantürk (2011) take this into consideration and conduct a study to determine the inter-relationship. They explore two types of empowerment that include behavioral and psychological. The study revealed that poor unfair salaries demoralized employees the most. In addition, conducive physical conditions created the best working environment. However, the best combination was psychological and behavioral empowerment that motivated the employees the most.
Benoliel, & Somech (2010) create a study to explore on the different results that can be achieved in case learning institutions adopted participative leadership. The study was performed to understand the effect of teacher’s personality on performance and satisfaction. A common assumption is made that introduction of participative leadership constantly gives positive results. This is however a mistake. Positive or negative results solely depend upon the personality of the teacher. Examples are agreeableness, experimental, strain, satisfaction, conscientiousness and many more are some of the few moderators of management and educators performance. It is therefore not in everyone’s ability to engage in participative leadership.
Fisher (1986) recognizes the pressure that most managers go through while trying to adopt the trendy participative leadership. Managers might be willing but the level of commitment required in this method is hugely consuming. Leaders may become tired and exhausted from the frustrations. This paper aims to help managers understand management skills that will assist them with skills to determine the level of maturity and the appropriate timing to introduce new activities. These skills will improve on productivity and reduce on the strain.
Marchant (1982) explains the disadvantages of participative management. Like Benoliel, & Somech (2010) he acknowledges the down side of participative management. As he states, job satisfaction may be achieved but the time wasted in meetings could become costly. This time he suggest could be spent working and achieve even greater results than the latter.
Often, the public forget that the health industry also has a part to play in managerial activities. Notably, the health care industry has suffered immensely regarding problems in organization. Angermeier (2009) conduct a study involving 2,522 employees and findings show that even the health industry benefits more on participative leadership compared to authoritative. The study argues that the edge missing in the healthcare industry can only be achieved by organization. The challenge can only be met by strategizing personnel management and fostering commitment and productivity.
Angermeie, Dunford, Boss, Smith, & Boss (2009) focus on employee empowerment and its effect on job commitment and satisfaction. The results of the study revealed that the physical and psychological conditions of the employees influenced their commitment and satisfaction.
Ogbeide & Harrington (2011) conduct a study to determine the level of participation needed to achieve a high success rate in profits and job satisfaction. The study aimed at realizing the relationship between all levels of management and the performance of their firms. The commitment level is determined between top managers and front line employees. Findings showed that total commitment from both parties was required to achieve the most desirable results. The study confirmed that direct interaction gave positive effects in performance as well as job satisfaction.
Kim (2002) involves the public and private agencies in this trending activity. Public government agencies have started exploring participative management and strategic planning to improve work quality and job satisfaction. The study proposes that for participative management to be successful, it must involve effective supervisory strategies. It shows how government agencies have backed on job satisfaction to increase accountability and performance in the work place. The study concludes that participative management increases job satisfaction.
Kenari, Alavijeh, Hamidi, & Sajjadi (2012) performed a study that presented the relationships between leadership styles and job satisfaction. Commitment was very significant but according to this study, there was insignificant relationship between participative management and job satisfaction. Ismail, Zainuddin, & Ibrahim (2010) performed a stepwise regression analysis to measure commitment on job satisfaction. It confirmed that the relationship built by the organization through commitment and good leadership programs improved job satisfaction.
Yiing & Ahmad (2009) analyze the effect of culture on leadership behavior, commitment and job satisfaction. It was discovered that culture had a positive moderating effect on leadership and commitment. Rad (2006) is a study on the effects of cultural values to the success of the TQM implementation in Isfahan University Hospitals. The result was more successful management, patient focus and better leadership and management.
Oosthuizen & Toit (1999) argue that numerous researchers digress from the main point on regarding this topic and focus on a more generalized outlook. It is however advisable to base research on empowerment since it results to the best outcome in terms of commitment and job satisfaction. The study also deals with the resistance facing the participatory management and the effect on performance. Data collected suggest that management question the management style and are slow to change. Sukirno & Siengthai (2011) oddly proposes that this topic has not gained enough attention in the research arena. The paper concludes that participative decision making and academic ranking are the most important in higher education.
Scott-Ladd & Marshall (2004) focuses on the current industrial climate in Australia and how it can best benefit from participative decision making. This managerial style was noted to foster effectiveness and increased job satisfaction according to the study conducted. Hines (1974) gives the assumption that employees desire active roles in the work place and that is the reason behind participative leadership being successful. It promotes equality in regions where such influences relationships at the work place.
Parnell, Carraher, & Holt (2002) focus on the middle and lower managers in an organization. The study suggests that they should diffuse in the organization to improve the integration of policies of the organization. Su, emphasizes on perceptions of automation committee members in the decision making process. The results of this study reveal that the more the participation in decision making of members, the stronger the decisions made. Also, the groups relate better and have a more positive attitude.
In conclusion, it is noted that participative management when properly supervised will ultimately result to job satisfaction. These studies have shown the advantages, disadvantages, and risks involved. These results were mostly achieved through regression analysis, which is very reliable. It is therefore every manager’s responsibility to explore if this is a viable option. In my opinion managers should take this program with all the patience they can master to achieve the best results.
Angermeie, I., Dunford, B. B., Boss, A. D., Smith, R. H., & Boss, W. B. (2009) The Impact of Participative Management Perceptions on Customer Service, Medical Errors, Burnout, and Turn over Intentions: Journal Of Health Care Management, 54 (2) 127-141.
Angermeier, I (2009) The Impact of Participative Management Perceptions on Customer Service: Journal of healthcare management 54, 2.
Benoliel, P., & Somech, A. (2010) Who benefits from participative management? Journal of Educational Administration, 48 (3) 285 – 308.
Hines, G. H. (1974) Sociocultural influences on employee expectancy and participative management: Research Notes, 17 (2) 334-339.
Ismail, A., Zainuddin, N. F. A., & Ibrahim, Z. (2010) Linking Participative And Consultative Leadership Styles To Organizational Commitment As An Antecedent Of Job Satisfaction: Unitary E-Journal, 6 (1) 11-26.
Kenari, B. A., Alavijeh, M. K., Hamidi, M., & Sajjadi, S. N. (2012) The Relationship between Participative Management and Job Attitudes of Employees of National Olympics and Paralympics Academy of Iran: International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2 (2) 123-129.
Kim, S. (2002) Paticipative management and job satisfaction: lessons for management leadership. Public Administration Review, 62 (2) 231-241.
Marchant, M. P. (1982) Participative management, job satisfaction, & service.
Ogbeide, G. C. A., & Harrington, R. J. (2011) The Relationship Among Participative Management Style, Strategy Implementation Success, And Financial Performance In The Foodservice Industry: International Journal Of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23 (6) 719-738.
Oosthuizen, G. J., & Toit, A. S. A. (1999) Participative management in academic library services: Library Management, 20 (4) 213 – 220.
Pardo-del-Val, M., Martínez-Fuentes, C., & Roig-Dobón, S. (2012) Participative management and its influence on organizational change: Management Decision, 50 (10) 1-26.
Parnell, J. A., Carraher, S., & Holt, K. (2002) Participative management's influence on effective strategic diffusion: Journal of Business Strategies, 19 (2) 161-179.
Pelit, E., Öztürk, Y., & Arslantürk, Y. (2011) The effects of employee empowerment on employee job satisfaction: A study on hotels in Turkey: International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23 (6) 784 – 802.
Rad, A. M. M. (2006) The impact of organizational culture on the successful implementation of total quality management: The TQM Magazine, 18 (6) 606- 625.
Scott-Ladd, B., & Marshall, V. (2004) Participation in decision making: a matter of context? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25 (8) 646 – 662.
Su, F. S. Participative Decision Making As Symbolic Action: Perceptions of Automation Committee Members in Selecting the Major Library Automation Vendor, 1-20.
Sukirno, D. S., & Siengthai, S. (2011) Does participative decision making affect lecturer performance in higher education?, International Journal of Educational Management, 25 (5) 494 – 508.
Yiing, L. H., & Ahmad, K. Z. (2009) The moderating effects of organizational culture on the relationships between leadership behavior and organizational commitment and between organizational commitment and job satisfaction and performance: Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 30 (1) 53 – 86.
Yousef, D. A (2000) Organizational commitment: a mediator of the relationships of leadership behavior with job satisfaction and performance in a non-western country: Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15 (1) 6 – 24.