A. Abnormal impulse construct is associated closely with drug addiction. From a science perspective, production of impulses can be altered by addiction. The urge of the addict to consume more of a drug may be explained with close analysis of the addiction chain (Ryan, 18).
B. The relationship that exists between addiction and impulse control still remains unclear. Researchers are puzzled with the question: what precedes what? Disorders resulting from drug abuse and addiction are closely interconnected with impulsivity (Ryan, 33). Such interrelationships have been expressed with little clarity. (Chopra, 66).
C. It is important to note that some scholars do not complete their experiments. This has hindered understanding of the relationship between addiction and impulse coordination. In my research, I will investigate the addiction cycle in order to provide answers to the following questions:
- Does impulsivity cause addiction?
- Do addictive behaviors have any connection with psycho stimulant drugs?
A. Scope of impulsivity
The urge for drug addiction and impulsivity is strongly correlated in animals (Perkins on, 208) and man (Moss, 20). Rodents under high impulsivity have a higher likelihood to exhibit addictive tendencies (Perry, 45). For example, people using nicotine are more vulnerable to addictive behaviors as compared to non-users (Mitchell, 99). In a recent experiment, 1.0mg/kg nicotine raised predilection of rats towards more nicotine intake (Olmstead, 8).I will analyze the effects of impulsivity in rodents.
B. Choice behavior and impulsivity
Two dissociable constructs regarding impulsivity and behavior exist; motor impulsivity and choice. The neuro-anatomical networks regulate psychological constructs important in impulsivity studies (Dickerson, 23). Waiting (choice) impulsivity is an initial determinant against drug addiction. People with ADHD exhibit distinct differences in their waiting impulsivity as compared to those with usual health controls (Ryan, 51).I
C. Connection between drug addiction propensity and impulsivity
Recent experiments have highlighted the relationship between habit transition and delayed rewards (Dickson 15). Rodents that were subjected to lever press rewards for food showed that there may be less dependent instrumental behavior under circumstances of delayed rewards( e.g. for 20 seconds, there are more habitual outcomes). Abnormal impulse construct is associated closely with drug addiction. From a science perspective, production of impulses can be altered by addiction. The urge of the addict to consume more of a drug may be explained with close analysis of the addiction chain (Moss, 87).These findings translate to the fact that failed and delayed goals encoding speeds up habitual behavior transition. This is the reason endophenotypes with strong impulsivity become vulnerable to escalation upon cocaine administration (Olmstead, 31).
D. Substrates of impulsivity
The substrates include; limbic, striates and prefrontal regions. Striatum receives projections from the amygdale and the hippocampus regions (Ryan, 19). These substrates are necessary for transmission of impulses. The nervous system coordinates the rest of the body parts through secretion of impulses. Drug abuse may decrease the amount of secretions in the body (Moss, 64). Drug abuse causes dullness. A person feels restless. This is dangerous.
People who experience escalated levels of impulsivity are the most likely to develop addiction. On the contrary, raised motor impulsivity relates to neuro-toxic effects as a result of intense drug exposure (Moss, 65).Therefore in my research; the central focus is to unravel the complex relationships between impulsivity and addictive behaviors. This must include the study of the psycho stimulant drugs whose effects still remain less vivid.
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Dickerson, Mark G, and John O'Connor. Gambling As an Addictive Behaviour: Impaired Control, Harm Minimisation, Treatment and Prevention. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Print.
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Webster, Christopher D, and Margaret A. Jackson. Impulsivity: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. New York: Guilford Press, 1997. Print.