a. Robby could cite himself, just to be certain that his readers understand that he made up the quote. If he were to do this, it would involve placing the invented quote within quotation marks and then appropriately citing himself both in text and in the works cited section. After the quotation marks, depending on the referencing system, Robbie should put the following (surname, date).
b. It is important to cite the interview, even if there are no direct quotes from it written into the essay. I would discuss the interview and paraphrase the information I wanted to use. Then I would use appropriate in text citation after the paraphrasing paragraph, for example (Eminem, 2011) if using APA format.
c. If I neglect to reference my grandmother as a source, this is plagiarism. Although the conversation was casual and took place over the telephone, it still constitutes as an interview in terms of research. Therefore, the interview with the grandmother should be referenced, and if dialogue from the conversation is put directly into the essay then quotation marks must be used, along with suitable in text citation.
d. Sarah needed to use appropriate in text citation for the quote. This would either mean placing the date, in brackets after the name ‘Ben Knowles’ or she should have placed name and date in brackets at the end of the quotation. Furthermore, some of the other information in her piece was not common knowledge, such as the part about Medieval Italy. Therefore, she should have used appropriate in text citation after paraphrasing from outside sources.