- Groot, E. (2012). Personal preference or policy? Language choice in a European-based international organization. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 17(3), 255-271. DOI: 10.1108/13563281211253511.
Research methodology applied in this paper was analyzing the languages that were used by the employees in the organizations at Europe. The data collection included surveys and personal interviews. The demographics for this study included the employees of most of the European nations and were in the age range of 25-40 years. It consisted of both new joiners and experienced ones. The findings concluded that, it is important to work upon language barriers in order to better deliver the performance. There are certain HR Management theories described supporting this study. The limitations of this study included the time period and the regions, as one can incorporate more regions and wider time frame.
- Harzing, A.W., and Pudelko, M. (2013). Language competencies, policies and practices in multinational corporations: A comprehensive review and comparison of Anglophone, Asian, Continental European and Nordic MNCs. Journal of World Business, 48(1), 87-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.jwb.2012.06.011.
This paper talks about how language competencies can help achieve a better result in the sub-continental regions of Asia, Europe, and Nordic. Research methodology involves a comprehensive review and comparison of Anglophone, Asian, Continental European and Nordic MNCs, to determine their language policies. The data collection included surveys and group discussions. The demographics of this study included senior level managers, since we were looking out for the competencies and policies regarding language in such MNCs. The results concluded that, language is an important element of communication. Communication is important for the team members to overcome their respective language barriers. There were as such no theories included that were directly relevant to a given study. The limitations included the regions that were not taken into the consideration for the given study. In addition, there was no scientific approach adopted to carry out this research.
-Louhiala-Salminen, L., and Kankaanranta, A. (2012). Language as an issue in international internal communication: English or local language? If English, what English? Public Relations Review, 38(2), 262-269. DOI: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2011.12.021.
This study focuses upon identifying language and several other parameters that are important from the E-Marketing perspective. The methodology adopted is carrying out extensive meta-analysis of the previous researches in this direction. It is a review presented of how languages can help in carrying out the E-Marketing activities on a global basis. The data collection methods include the reviews of the employees working in MNCs, the previously researched articles that have been written on this theme, and considering their conclusive results. The demographics are different for each of researched articles taken into the consideration, but all of them are working into one or the other organizations. The study findings have concluded that, language is an important parameter for conducting E-Marketing campaigns. The theories that are included in this paper are of Marketing and Communication. The limitations were the personal reviews of the authors, since these can vary a lot. In addition, only the researches of certain specific period were taken into the consideration.
- Fredriksson, R., Barner-Rasmussen, W., and Piekkari, R. (2006). The multinational corporation as a multilingual organization: The notion of a common corporate language. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 11(4), 406-423. DOI: 10.1108/13563280610713879.
Research methodology focuses upon evaluating the performance of the MNCs by considering the language and several other parameters. They have tried to evaluate the performance of the employees by considering the language as a key factor for communication. The data collection includes the projects that are obtained through cross-cultural communication and local communication deals. There are even interviews of the key personnel that were involved in all these processes. The demographics include the senior management team of a multinational corporation. The study findings conclude that, without proper communication and proper project management, it was impossible to get such projects for a given organization. There are project management theories and concepts involved in this paper to support the study. There are certain assumptions on the project teams, the delivering teams, which might question the end-results of this study.
- Charles, M. (2007). Language Matters in Global Communication. Journal of Business Communication, 44(3), 260-282. DOI: 10.1177/0021943607302477.
Research methodology focuses upon the global communication parameters in this paper. The paper tries to provide information on how to improve E-Marketing by considering the language as a key tool. The data collection involves data-sets of the languages spoken and how people effectively communicate within the organization. The demographics include all the employees of different ranks of the organization, so as to confirm the results for this study. The theories included are of Marketing and communication. And, finally, the limitations for this study are not taking into considerations the culture and other parameters, which could affect E-Marketing activities in the Global B2B Environment.
- Kankaanranta, A., and Planken, B. (2010). Self Competence as Business Knowledge of Internationally Operating Business Professionals. Journal of Business Communication, 47(4), 380-407. DOI: 10.1177/0021943610377301.
This paper focuses upon those parameters that are important from the Global B2B environment perspective. Research methodology adopted includes statistically testing the results of the survey. The demographics included were the professional people who were the key decision-makers of the organization. The study findings conclude that, not only culture, but principles, morals, ethics, and appropriate language communication are important for E-Marketing at a global level. The theories included were of International Management and the limitations of the study included not taking into account the domestic business parameters.
Homburg, C., Fürst, A., and Kuehnl, C. (2012). Ensuring international competitiveness: a configurative approach to foreign marketing subsidiaries.
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(2), 290-312. DOI: 10.1007/s11747-011-0264-3.
This paper talks about how to ensure an edge of E-Marketing over others at a global B2B level. Research methodology includes a review as well as an intensive research. The data collected was through telephonic interviews, group discussions, and through personal interviews of the senior management. The results obtained concluded that, there are several competitive parameters that one should consider for E-Marketing at a global level. The demographics included the senior and middle level management employees. There were not many employees taken into consideration for this research, due to which the scope of the research was limited.