Over the recent past, the rate at which academic citations are being used while writing academic works of different disciplines has been on the rise. More people are embracing the use of citations to show their sources of information. Also, it is becoming a requirement in almost every academic discipline to make use of citations while writing academic papers so as to show the sources of information.
In the construction of different literature and academic works, people are advices to use citations not only to show the source of their information, but also to show the agreement of their ideologies and arguments with that of other individuals who did research on the same topic/field. For a paper to be substantial, it is important for the researcher to balance the use of both social interaction and factual information. It helps in making any piece of literature persuasive and increases the chances of making it acceptable because of the use of interactive features in its making. Citations are paramount in any piece of writing as they provide justifications for arguments and also shows the originality of one’s pieces of works. Studies have shown that apprentices in different fields of study tend to use different styles of citations and intensity.
However, little is known about what dictates the different use of citations, in intensity and format, while writing pieces of literature. Apart from the field of discipline, what other factor determines the use of citations while writing literature? This paper will give an insight look into the use of citations in business, psychology, and humanities and social sciences work. The paper will compare how citations have been used differently in these disciplines and what factors determine the different used of citations.
Electronically, citations were detected in brackets, square brackets, and references in Latinate forms. Special means were used to account for citations which were made through extensive discussions on an aforementioned author. Also, third parties pronouns were used to detect in text citations. Words such as “Author’s” indicate that the argument being used is not original and has been sited from someone else’s piece of works. Other pieces of literature use citations as quotes, summary, or generalize citations from other sources. Such citations were taken care of by use of manual methods where each and every article was scrutinized individually.
In the three articles I use (business, psychology, and humanities and social sciences), I individually looked for references in the articles and noted their use down in written form. I then made a comparison of how citations are used in these different disciplines. As a way of confirming my observation and analysis, I compared my findings with that of the secondary sources I used.
In the business article, on average, three citations are used in every paragraph. The citations are sparingly used throughout the article. Citations are used to introduce and show the source of business concepts. I also noticed that in text citations entails the author of the business concept being explained and the year they brought up the concepts. For example, at the beginning of the business article, Harridge in 2008 stated that the rise of use of technology and internet in business marketing calls for an increase of accountability in marketing budget (Zahay et al. 52).
In the psychology article, in text citations have also been intensely used. Both the names and the years of the referred scholars are cited in the article with every paragraph having an average of three bracketed citations. The psychology article also makes use of direct speech put under speech marks. On average, two direct quotes are used in every paragraph (Kebbell, Mark and David 129).
For the humanities and social sciences article, there is a sparing use of in text citations. The topic under discussion, fictional movies, limits the extensive use of quoting authors or the years the other pieces of literature were done. Names of the different fictional movies referenced on are put in speech marks (Davis, Todd and Kenneth 341).
I made an observation that the psychology and business articles make intensive use of in text citations. For the business article, citations are used to mention and refer to a scholar who came up with the business concept being discussed. For example, in the business article Identifying and Assessing Fundamental Competencies of Direct and Interactive Marketing, Spiller and Scovotti are mentioned as scholars who came up with the 25 topics that were closely related to interactive marketing. In text citations, in the article, have also been made in brackets to show the authors and the year of publishing of the book that was used in writing an article (Zahay et al. 54).
For the psychology article, there is intensive use of in text citations, there is also intensive use of direct quotes to refer to individuals who said them. Most of the in text citations are put under brackets. The nature of the topic makes the paper- criminal psychology- makes reference fundamental to supporting the arguments made (Kebbell, Mark and David 130).
The humanities and social sciences article does not have a lot of in text citations. It also does not have a lot of direct quotes. The films being referred to are put under quotation marks. There is, however, the use of integral citations. For instance, while looking into a literature known as The Company We Keep, there is the use of indirect citation to show what Booth, the doer of the piece of literature, advocates for (Davis, Todd and Kenneth 342).
The topic under discussion also influences the use of citations in a piece of literature. In the case where a lot of theories are used, more citations will be made as compared to the case where no theories are used.
I would like to express my great appreciation to Ken Hyland for writing a great piece of literature on Citation and the Construction of Disciplinary Knowledge. This piece of work has been extremely helpful while doing my research. I would also like to thank the authors of “Identifying and Assessing Fundamental Competencies of Direct and Interactive Marketing”, "Shepherding the Weak: The Ethics of Redemption in Quentin Tarantino's Pulp Fiction.", and "Some experimental influences of lawyers' complicated questions on eyewitness confidence and accuracy." Their pieces of work have been of great use in doing my research.
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