According to Franken (2001), motivation is an internal state or condition in humans, which rejuvenates thus behavior refreshing its focus. Oliver (2009) quotes Kleinginna and Kleinginna (1981a) as saying the condition is described using synonymic words such as want, need, or desire. Motivation is an internal condition or state in which human behavior gets to desire, or wants to reenergize or be influenced. The behavior is given a new direction and is activated.
Motivation results from within an individual and the surrounding, and can be conceptualized as an impulse emanating from within or outside the precincts of a person. Motivation not only does affect the process of choice and birth of specific goal, but also entirely control and direct that specific activity towards the goals. In other words, motivation is a ‘process whereby a goal oriented-activity is instigated and sustained.’ Simplified, it is the cause for starting, directing, and maintaining behaviors; or ‘that which make us act the way we do’ Domyei and Schmidt (2009).
Sources of motivation
Barbuto (Jr) &. Trout (2004), proposes several perspectives of exploring sources of motivation. These include psychosocial, need-based, intrinsic, social identity, value-based, goal setting, self concept-based and developmental. According to Barbuto and Scholl (1999) there are five sources of motivation which comprises of intrinsic process, instrumental, external self-concept-external, internal self-concept, and goal internalization.
Intrinsic Process Motivation
This is where someone’s motivation is driven by the desire to have fun. For instance, intrinsic motivation occurs if an individual may be motivated to abscond or divert from relevant goal-achieving activities to pursue those acts that he/she considers as giving more fun. In this case, the activity opted becomes an incentive and the source of motivation (Leonard et al 1999).
The desire to have fun or enjoyment derived from a specific task or goals becomes the motivator. Intrinsic motivators drive individuals to those activities they consider pleasurable. Such people are likely to be sidetracked from tasks relevant to a specific or original goals attainment and alternatively pursue activity that give them fun.
Motivation is derived from an anticipated outcome such as reward, pay, or praise. In this case, the anticipated outcome becomes the instrument for motivation. The instruments will mold or direct an individual’s behavior towards a particular direction. (Barbuto Jr & Trout, 2004)
External Self Concept-based Motivation
This is where the agent of motivation is adopted from struggle to meet the expectation of reference groups. It is rather external based as the individual attempts to satisfy the expectation of others (reference groups or peers) by acting or behaving is particular way that wins approval or gain feedback in line with self-perception of the individual. According McClelland (1987), the need to gain acceptance and status affiliation, motivate people to live, work or behavior in such a way that depict these phenomenon.
Internal Self Concept-based Motivation
Barbuto Jr &. Trout (1999) assert that a person may be motivated by personally set standards and principles. The set standards and principles guide individual behavior thus becoming a motivator and a source of motivation.
To individually gain motivation from such intrinsic sources, they consider own effort in achieving the ideal self, belief own actions and ideas are instrumental in perfecting a task; to them others need not to reinforce on his/her efforts.
A behavior may also be guided or directed by an internalized goal. When an individual adopt an attitude and behavior consistent to self-value system, the person is said to have an internalized-goal. Such a person considers the goals as instrumental, and this drive him/her to act or behave towards the goals that support the cause.
The relationship between motivation and behavior
Motivation and behavior have a direct relationship. One is depicts the other. Scholars of psychology have argued that humans are goal-oriented creatures of nature. Motivation is the link to the goal and the behavior. One of the ways in which the two are related is when motivation guides behavior toward particular goals. Ormrod (2009) argue that people set goals and instigate mechanisms of achieving the goals. Motivation guide individuals to the goals, it affects decisions, choices and efforts people make in specific situation.
Motivation also dictates the amount of effort and persistence individuals invest in activities related to the goals one want to achieve or needs. Motivated individuals behave enthusiastically and wholeheartedly commit themselves to tasks that leads them achieving what they desire. Such individual are persistent and are like to endure challenges that may come their way until the task is completed (Oliver, 2009).
How behavior exhibit motivation
Behavior is the platform in which motivated individual exhibit their motivations. It important do not that not all form of motivation affects human behavior in the same way. Barbuto Jr. and Trout (2004), advocate that intrinsic behavior is more exhibited and better than extrinsic. Using two case examples, Barbuto Jr. and Trout explain how motivation is depicted differently in two college students. In the first case, a student is motivated to take a course because earning an A or B in the class would help him get a scholarship at a prestigious university where he is desperate. He is least committed to class activities and rarely commits his task in time. The second case is where another student loves writing, and has taken a class not only to get the same scholarship but also to improve her writing techniques. She engages a lot in the learning process, always proactive. She writes for the college magazines and reads extensively.
In Barbuto Jr. and Trout’s, the first’s student’ behavior exhibits extrinsic motivation. External factors engage the student. Extrinsically motivated individuals whose driving force are good graded, money, praise or other instruments usually performs task as means to an end not as an end in itself. On the other hand, the second case, the student exhibited intrinsic motivators in play. The factors motivating the student are within and inherent the task she is performing. In intrinsically motivated individuals, there are more than one psychological goals to accomplish associated within a specific the tasks. Such individuals are enthusiastic to engage in a task because its accomplishment will make them feel competent, better, enjoyable or satisfied (Barbuto Jr & Trout, 2004).
Barbuto J. E (Jr). &. Trout S. K., (2004) Identifying sources of motivation of adult rural workers. Journal of Agricultural Education 45(3), University of Nebraska-Linc.
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Leonard, N. H., Beauvais, L. L., & Scholl, R. W. (1999). Work motivation: The incorporation of self based processes. The Journal of Human Relations, 52: 969-998.
McClelland, D. C. (1987). Human motivation. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press
Oliver R. L., (2009) Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer. New York, USA: M.E. Sharpe, Sharpe Ltd
Ormrod J.E., (2009) Essentials of Educational Psychology, New Jersey, USA: Pearson Education. 189-192.