Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949)
Workers are not only motivated by money but social needs should be considered too.
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 – 1917)
He says that employees are motivated by money, which is opposite what Elton Mayo forwarded. Workers do not enjoy working but they need to be forced or supervised.
Abraham Maslow(1908 – 1970)
He said psychological needs of the employees are important and should be fulfilled.
Frederick Herzberg (1923-2000)
He believed in two-factor theory of motivation. He argues that, there are factors, which motivate employees directly (motivators), and other de-motivates them not to work hard (Hygiene factors).
Theory of Scientific Management by Frederick Winslow Taylor is a motivational, which is important at work place. This theory is applicable at work place because workers are motivated by pay for them to be effective and efficient (Deci & Ryan, 1995, p. 31). Even if workers are paid well, they need to be supervised or forced to work. Workers do not like working and therefore, they need to be coerced (Deci, 1971, p. 105).
Supervisors and managers should break down the tasks to be accomplished and assigned to individual workers depending on their skills and experience. They will be paid according to tasks completed based on their efficiency (Latham, 2007, p. 237). This will ensure workers maximize their productivity because payment depends on the work done. This theory is therefore applicable if employees are to be motivated based their effectiveness and efficiency. It is applicable if the job can be broken down into tasks (Deci & Ryan, 1995, p. 49)
However, this theory may not be applicable in some jobs or work places. If the work done is not measurable or one is paid fixed amount monthly, then, the theory is not applicable (Madsen, 1968, p. 302). Employees can be de-motivated if they are forced to do a lot work and yet they are paid less. Workers will protest and demands for more pay because they think they are being forced to work. Forcing and supervising employees may not be applicable because they will think they are being treated unfairly (Deci, 1971, p. 109).
Because the theory could not be applied at work place, the management had to design a model that motivated employees to perform even better. The ramifications or challenges for failing to motivate the employees and convince them to work are because employees are naturally not willing to work (Weiner, 1992, p. 202). Lack of structures and procedures to determine the work one has done was the major challenge. This will led to low productivity, which in long run would not meet the demand in the market (White, 1963, p. 175).
De-motivated employees will do poor quality work and are not satisfied in whatever they are doing (Latham, 2007, p. 237). Employees do no like being forced to work because they think they are not performing as expected. Forcing them to work led to strike and demonstrations demanding favorable working terms and conditions (Deci, 1971, p. 115).
The psychological needs of employees are important to be satisfied instead of only focusing on payment only. The Maslow theory should be considered because it is essential (Cianci & Gambrel, 2003, p. 143). This theory should be applied because there are more other needs that should be satisfied for an employee to be motivated. These include safety, physiological, social needs, self-esteem, and self-actualization. Employees should not be forced to work but be explained slowly and clearly on what to do and why they should accomplish the work in time. Motivated employees are more productive than those who are forced or coerced to work (Cianci & Gambrel, 2003, p. 143).
Cianci, R. & Gambrel, P.A. (2003). Maslow's hierarchy of needs: Does it apply in a
collectivist culture. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 8(2), 143
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Human autonomy: The basis for true self-esteem.
Efficacy, agency, and self-esteem (pp. 31-49). New York: Plenum.
Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, 105-115.
Latham, G. P. (2007). Work motivation: history, theory, research, and practice. New York: Sage
Madsen, K. B. (1968). Theories of motivation: a comparative study of modern theories of
motivation. Kent: Kent State University Press.
Weiner, B. (1992). Human motivation: metaphors, theories, and research. New York: Sage.
White, R. W. (1963). Ego and reality in psychoanalytic theory. New York: International