Alcoholism is an issue that can have an effect on anyone, as it is not prejudicial in the direction of any race, color, gender, creed, or economic status. It has colossal expenditures as it relates to cultures, families, and individuals. Even though we do have thoughts as to what alcoholism is, we do not recognize the accurate cause(s) of this predicament. Researchers are constantly looking for answers to the age-old nature versus nurture debate. Diverse views are divided between a biological concept and a psychological concept. No single account appears to be better than the other is. In this presentation, the biological and psychological paradigms will be discussed in line with the nature or nurture debate relating to alcohol abuse and alcoholism.
Alcoholism is believed to emanate from genetic causes. Family studies have constantly established that the possibility of alcoholism is elevated among parents, siblings, and children. Whilst genetics may take part in a significant function, other dynamics can influence personal biological vulnerability to the outcomes of alcoholism. Because alcohol abuse is correlated to behavioural and ecological features leads to the indication that genetics act together in conjunction with other non-genetic causes (Breslin et.al, 1995). Some diseases are caused by the alteration of a single gene such as cystic fibrosis, but alcoholism is not one of these. Alcohol abuse is very possible to engage multiple genes that manage a variety of features of the biological reaction to alcohol.
A relationship between alcoholism and a gene that controls the quantity of a kind of dopamine receptors within the brain has been researched. The study exposed an association between the existence of the gene not merely in alcoholics, but as well in other disorders for example autism and Tourette’s disease. The existence of this exacting gene, whereas not exclusively precise for alcoholism, may cause a variation in the brain’s dopamine structure that one way or another contributes to alcohol abuse. By looking at the scientific evidence and researches provided, then we can conclusively say that alcoholism can also be inherited. In short, in the Nature vs. Nurture we can say that alcoholism is part of nature.
Alcohol use may add to additional use and abuse via psychological ways. An introductory successful occurrence of exploit may decrease a person’s fear concerning using of alcohol. This consecutively leads the way to sustained exploit that can lead to the increase of forbearance and reliance. Individuals who were one time social drinkers have evolved to abusive intake since the influences of alcohol on them are enhanced than the experiences of other actions taking place in their life (Cooper et. al, 1995). An instance of this is one who experiences the excruciating actuality of a bereavement in their family may discover the experience too complex to cope with, and the sentiment created by alcohol helps in the coping process.
A number of drinkers claim that alcohol assists them in reducing nervousness permitting them to face issues that they may fear. Traumatic life events have led to augmented exploit of alcohol. The trauma is alleviated via augmented drinking. Conversely, investigational studies are unsuccessful in showing that amplified tension cause augmented drinking. If people take alcohol to decrease tension and stress then one would anticipate that drinking alcohol would augment during tension and stress initiating circumstances. Another study proposes that people do not drink alcohol to decrease tensions. They imbibe once the stressed condition is over or has stopped and reprieve has set in. It is the elimination of stress that causes drinking not the actual stressful situation.
The outline is simple. It involves an introduction where the topic alcoholism is defined, described, and supported by two theories; biological and psychological that are directly relevant to alcoholism and provide evidence for the nature vs. nurture debate. It also contains a body where the two theories are discussed in line with alcoholism and the nature vs. nurture debate. There is a conclusion that summarizes the goals and purpose of the project.
Alcoholism is an issue that can have an effect on anyone. It is both an issue that can be nurtured and is natural. According to biological theory, it is genetically inscribed thus it is nature. However, according to psychological theory it is nurtured. The point of the project is to talk of alcoholism in line with the nature vs. nurture debate.
Breslin, F.C.; O’Keefe, M.K.; Burrell, L.; Ratliffe-Crain, J.; and Baum, A (1995). The effects of stress and coping on daily alcohol use in women. Addictive Behaviour 20(2): 141-147,.
Cooper, M.L.; Frone, M.; Russell, M.; and Mudar, P. (1995). Drinking to regulate positive and negative emotions: A motivational model of alcohol use. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology 69 (5): 990 – 1005,.