Some nations exist as communal identities without the benefit of an internationally recognized, cartographically defined state, such as the Palestinians, Kurds and Quebecois. They are called stateless nations. Stateless nations are of particular consequence when they seek statehood. While seeking statehood, they challenge the prevailing order while reproducing its central feature. They are structure-preserving at the same time as they challenge the identities of some of the central political units of international society. As per Fellmann et.al (1997), stateless nations confirm the importance of states to international order but stateless nations can change existing territorial boundaries (Fellman, Gatis & Gatis, p. 417).
Stateless nations opt for this situation due to three major reasons; historical, political and cultural. The stateless nations were developed by their relations with various governments and their neighbors, and have their own particular history, the events and conflicts that have its national characteristics and culture. This paper would discuss these three disciplines of stateless nations in detail. Other reasons like economic, environmental and physical also play role in the formation of stateless nations.
Fellman et al (1997) describes the geographical boundaries created by humans and differentiates between state, nation-state and stateless nation. This literature provides insight about various aspects of stateless nations and the impact on geographical boundaries of stateless nations. Berdun (1999) states the political aspect of stateless nations in elaborated manner and would assist in understanding the political reasons which drives the formation of stateless nations. Michael Keating (2000) elaborates the political, economic and cultural reasons for stateless nation to demand the stateless nation and also covers historical evidences of stateless nations to publicize them as independent nation.
Berdún, Maria Montserrat Guibernau i. Nations without states: political communities in a global age. Wiley-Blackwell, 1999.
Jerome Donald Fellmann, Arthur Getis & Judith Getis. Human Geography: landscapes of human activities. Surendra Kumar, 1997.
Keating, Michael. Paradiplomacy and Regional Networking. Hanover: Forums of Federations: an International Federalism, 2000.