Home front refers to the civilians of a nation which is experiencing war. These civilians act as active support to the military at the war front. The military highly depend on the support rendered by home front either informs of services, physical materiel or psychological support (Whitman, Sylvia, 1993). Home front is rarely involved in active war expect when fighting happen in home grounds.
America was engaged in both World War 1 and the Iraq war. During this war, civilians were involved to form home fronts. The home front during the World War 1 was different from the one experienced during Iraq war. These differences are as a result of the technological growth that is widely experienced in the world (Whitman, Sylvia, 1993). During the World War 1, the danger posed to the civilians was minimal compared to modern war. Therefore, the home front has been accorded new responsibility of dealing with vulnerability of direct attack.
Home front in United States during the World War 1 was mobilized to provide any help possible in order to win the war. This was done by engaging the population and the economy in producing soldiers, food supplies, ammunitions, and finances. America was not fully prepared to join the world war; therefore, the government had to seek civilian participation. First initiative was to seek laborers in the production of munitions and food production. Through the intervention of President Woodrow Wilson, 500,000n to 1 million jobs were created. This boosted food production across America as well as munitions production. Food production was highly stressed in strategic plans back at home. This led to increase in gross farm income with more than 230%, between 1914 and 1919. Men roles were occupied by women, as majority was in were in war fronts. Women were employed in industries living their household chores. Iraq war did not affect women role in the home front. This is specifically so, because the war did not require large man power as compared to World War 1. The main reason is the utilization of technology in assault (Whitman, Sylvia, 1993).
Iraq war unlike World War 1 was well prepared; therefore, food and munitions production was not a challenge to America. Military technological growth was key in, the provision of efficient labor. Major task to the home front was to be vigilant in case of direct attack. The home front was accorded with the responsibility of reporting suspicious characters. This saw the introduction of terrorist act to minimize chances of attack. In the World War 1 espionage act of 1917 and the 1918 sedition act introduced laws to punish any expression of doubt in American engagement in the war. On the centrally, the Iraq war provided freedom of expression. The growth in communication technology posed psychological pain to relatives of military solders on war fronts. This led to the emergence of anti-Iraq war. This group argued the government to withdraw solders from Iraq (Whitman, Sylvia, 1993).
World War 1 home front used pro-war propaganda, through the use of writers and scholars. Movies and films were produced and delivered in movie theaters, school and churches. The main aim was to promote patriotism and participation in the war. The government went to an extent of creating war bonds to bind with the war. This war bonds were implemented to Germans in America. In the current Iraq war, the citizens are engaged in the war through taxation. More than $500 billion was used (Whitman, Sylvia, 1993). This fact bonded the civilians to the war, and they expected positive results. In 1917, the selective service act was introduced to rely primarily on recruitment, rather than voluntary military service. During the Iraq war, only a selected military squad participated in the war.
List of activities in America home front during World War I
1. Setting up of agencies to consolidate people’s talents.
2. Redirecting economy in production of munitions and food
3. Create propaganda to promote patriotism
4. Increasing internal surveillance to avoid internal attacks
5. Creating treaties to control the Germans in America
6. Create awareness of the enemy during the war, inform of movies and films.
7. Farming to produce enough food for the war
8. Filling in positions left by men.
9. Paying taxes and war loyalties to finically support the war.
10. To compose the deceased and orphaned families by the war
Whitman, Sylvia. V Is for Victory: The American Home Front During World War II.
Lerner, 1993. Print