Principal regions of the North American continent and the human adaptations that made social life possible in each of them
Like the other natives elsewhere, natives in North America practiced food gathering techniques, shifting seasonal subsistence and altering their diets in various regions for adaptation. The Indians in Atlanta region created open area's brushy edge habitats in the southern forests which attracted deer and other animals to better defined hunting grounds. In the forests, they used fire to drive certain game and deer in good areas where animals could easily be dispatched. Others in lower grounds had well defined agricultural grounds and hunting territories which they forcefully defended against intrusion.
In Carolina for instance, the natives greatly believed in nature and animated objects such as shells and rocks which they believed possessed spiritual power. Those who farmed, hunted or gathered wild fruits practiced certain rituals that are designed to show respect for their gods. In Carolina and Georgia uplands, Cherokee hunters who habitually took deer as well as other animals asked for forgiveness for particular animals.
Ways in which colonial contact in the Northeast differed from contacts in the Caribbean and Mexico
People in the North East lived in similar ways though they were varied. The majority of them grew food: men hunted, made war and fished while women farmed and gathered food in the woods. These people lived in family groups, though they owed their senior loyalties to their clans and wider network of kin. In New York, the Iroquois formed alliances known as confederacies particularly for the goal of making war on outsiders and keeping peace among their neighbours. Day today political organizations went beyond village elders and chiefs who ruled them by consent. In the Caribbean on the other hand, there was a colonial contradiction in the 19th century that acted as a warning colonial power. During this period, Spain as a primary agricultural country lacked necessary and adequate economic base for extracting primary goods and agricultural products from Puerto Rico and Cuba. To add on to that, it still in return could not provide the colonies with manufactured goods. Seemingly, the Bourbon reforms wholesomely failed to generate production facilities to capitalist. In early 1776, Spain out of revenge allowed Cuba to trade with the colonies that rebelled. In North East America, trade began with Cuba which was a key source of sugar, coffee, tobacco and molasses
Differences between colonizing ‘frontiers of inclusion" and ‘exclusion’
The frontier of exclusion means settling in a certain way to stop people from coming into contact to ensure that there is a very minimal meshing or intermixing of cultures taking place. Exclusion as defined in the chapter is to restrict or prevent the entrance or to bar especially for a position or place that had previously been occupied. Making colonized subjects of an exclusive policy and an integral part of a system would be a way to push the vanquished from the system. Exclusion therefore is to keep out, thrust or expel. A frontier of inclusion on the other hand is defined as an immense deal of dealing between races and intermixing. A good illustration of the differences between inclusion and exclusion frontier is England which is used as an example of exclusion while Spain and France are used as examples of inclusion. Notably, it is coherent to state that colonization’s inclusive policy could mean making colonized nations subjects integral parts of the new system such as the French in Canada. An exclusion policy on the other hand means pushing the vanquished away from the new system; in this case we could give an example of English in British North America.