- St. Anselm in the 11th Century proposed the first ontology on the existence of God. In his argument, St. Anselm proposed that God’s existence is derived from the concept of, “being than which no greater can be conceived,” (“Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy,” 2011). Therefore, a being that no greater than it can be conceived is God. However, his argument shows that it is necessary to belief in God, but does not, in fact, prove the existence of God.
Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy . “Ontological Arguments”; 2011. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ontological-arguments/ on October 13, 2014.
- Luke Tracy (2012) on J.L. Mackie problem on evil quotes that Mackie argues that God is omnipotent, wholly good, but there is evil existing contradicting these qualities. If good things eliminate evil so far as it can, and that an omnipotent being has no limit, then these premises are contradicting. Mackie offers a solution by noting that it is good for some evil to exist since it is evil that makes good.
Luke Tracy. “A Logical Argument from Evil and Perfection”; 2012. Retrieved from http://infidels.org/library/modern/luke_tracey/logical-evil.html on October 13, 2014.
- A monad is an indivisible ultimate entity. Leibniz beliefs that all compound substances are formed from a combination of monads. Therefore, organisms or compounds can be divided into simple monads that form them (Leibniz monad, n.d). The monads have active power that strives to produce the primary force creating an internal principle of change. From this activity, changes occur.
“Leibniz monad”. Retrieved from http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/schievp/file22m.html on October 13, 2014.
- Determinism is the belief that all what happens is predetermined and that it has a cause (“Notes on Determinism and indeterminism,” n.d). Therefore, free will cannot be practical since all that happens is predetermined leaving no one with the option of choice. On the other hand, indeterminism argues that all what happened is by chance, and nothing causes them. Indeterminism disregards logical reasoning on the cause-effect used in science.
“Notes on Determinism and indeterminism”. Retrieved from http://philosophy.tamu.edu/~sdaniel/Notes/freedom1.html on October 13, 2014.
- Aristotle differentiates humans from other animals and vegetation by the claim that humans can reason. Therefore, the happiness of the human beings is reached rationally. Gangsters may not live a happy life since pleasure alone cannot guarantee happiness. It has to be attached to virtue. Gangsters do not have the complete virtue (Nicomachean Ethics, 1101a10) and, therefore, would not live a happy life.
Nicomachean Ethics, 1101a10. Retrieved from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=IjicAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA107&lpg=PA107&dq=Nicomachean+Ethics,+1101a10&source=bl&ots=PIQ4A_KTYA&sig=G5BsakR9ZqFWD3ELQXNnPUAqhrg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=O9E7VLGQEsrEPfyAgZAL&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Nicomachean%20Ethics%2C%201101a10&f=false on October 13, 2014.