The environment of Nepal was affected by deforestation, encroachment, and soil erosion. There is also contamination in its water. Back in the 1970s, the country’s forestland decreased from 30% to 22% of its overall area. This was due to the timber of firewood which was the source of fuel in Nepal. Erosion also caused the decrease in land which was about 240 million cu m of topsoil every year. In 1957, the forests of Nepal were already nationalized but there were few deforestation activities that were done. However, in 1980, the country started a deforestation program which included the village tree nurseries, giving away of free seedlings, and wood burning stoves provision. In 1985, deforestation reached 324 sq mi every year but reforestation only reached 4,000 hectares. So there was still a loss of 4.4% of woodland and forest in 1983 and 1993. According to FAO’s prediction, if this rate would continue, Nepal’s forests would be totally wiped out when it reached 2015.
Water and air pollution are a big environmental problem in Nepal. The country is said to emit 18000 tons of carbon monoxide as well as 3300 tons of hydrocarbons every single year. Almost one third of the citizens in the city and two thirds from rural areas do not have access to pure water. They had no choice but to use contaminated drinking water which was of course dangerous for their health. If sewage is untreated, then it is also a major source of pollution. The cities of the country create about 0.4 million tons of solid waste annually. In 2001, 28 mammal species in Nepal were already endangered while seven for plant species. Some of the species were tiger, snow leopard, pygmy hog, Asian elephant, swamp deer, Assam rabbit, great Indian rhinoceros, gavial, wild yak, and chir pheasant.
Nepal has three contrasted areas. Southern Nepal which is known as Teria has dense jungle and cultivated land. The forests serve as the source of valuable timber. It has one third of the population of Nepal. The second part which is also the largest part is the Mahbabharat, Churia as well as the Himalayan mountain ranges. These range from east to west. The third part is the high central region which is between the Himalayan and Mahabharat ranges. This third part is known as the Valley of Nepal. The valley has fertile soil which is a good place for agriculture. This is the only part of Nepal with the right number of population.
The climate in Nepal is affected by continental and maritime factors. The country has four seasons. Spring is from March to May with temperature of about 22 degree Celsius. Summer is from June to August. It is known as the monsoon season and the hills become green. Temperature may reach 30 degree Celsius. Autumn is from September to November. This is the cool season of the country and the common activity done is trekking. Lastly, winter is from December to February. During this season, temperature sometimes goes below zero.
The economy of Nepal is dominated by agriculture. So it has various crops and livestock. Agriculture is the livelihood of more than 90% of the country’s population. It is the main source of not just food, but also income and employment. The most common crops are rice and corn. Other food crops include millet, wheat, barley, and coffee. Livestock farming is also important in Nepal (Pradhanang et al 1). The most common livestock is cattle. It is said that more than two million households have cattle. Other livestock that are common in Nepal are buffalo, milking cow, sheep and wool, goat, chicken, pigs, and duck.
Pradhanang, U, S. Pradhanang, A. Sthapit, N. Krakauer, A. Jha, and T. Lakhankar. (2015). National Livestock in Nepal. Journal of Agriculture.