Provision for public health and safety
The organization of city planning
Cultural/educational amenities for citizens of Icarie
Cabet who was exiled from France decided to set up a model colony on land which was appropriated from the state of Texas. From the very beginnings this colony was meant to function on rather original lines with particular emphasis on issues such as health and safety which were unheard of in cities at that time. The city was to have orderly workshops, residential unites according to class, a properly planned sewage system and a number of public monuments, spaces and gardens to ensure the proper recreation of the people. City planning was to be taken to a new level with orderly streets in grid format, innovative streetscape designs, innovative architectural features as well as schools and other educational institutions. Unfortunately the project never really took off due to the opposition from city elders and the US government as well as infighting and squabbling between the French themselves.
Identify what Karl Marx claimed were the motivations behind each of the following issues connected with the U.S. Civil War in his 1861 article on "The North American Civil War":
Why poor southern whites supported slavery and slave holders despite not owning slaves themselves.
Poor Southern whites always felt that the ‘nigger’ was an inferior being and they gained some satisfaction from that fact that he/she was below them in the social scale so they supported slavery in the sense that they felt one step above in the ladder.
The connection between the interests of slave-holders and the U.S. government’s foreign policy of conquests and occupations in North America (Texas, the Mexican Cession, Florida) during the 19th century
Slaveholders had a particular interest in the expansion of US territory as they continue to influence new states to adopt slavery and also to expand their markets. The US government’s aggressive foreign policy and land grabbing obviously fitted in perfectly with slaveholder’s interests who felt emboldened by these conquests to keep the status quo on the institution of slavery.
How the southern slaver-holder class succeed in forcing the free states of the North to accept slavery over ever-greater parts of the U.S. and its territories before 1860.
The Southern slaveholder was very powerful politically and since the South had an important cotton industry, the North could do little but acquiesces to the Southerner’s demands. Issues like the Kansas-Nebraska Act and a succession of weak Presidents culminating in Millard Fillmore and James Buchanan continued to embolden the Southern slaveholder.
Why the slaver-holder class of the South decided to launch its rebellion against the Union in 1860-61 after what Marx argues was decades of effective domination of U.S. foreign and domestic policy
The Southern slaveholders felt threatened and that their way of life would disappear after the election of the Republican President Abraham Lincoln. They felt that they could no longer live in tandem with the North whilst they were diametrically opposed on the slavery question. Thus they decided to attack Fort Sumter and claim independence.
Why according to Emma Goldman in Love and Marriage (1911) is conventional marriage corrupting of:
Women’s intellectual and moral character?
A genuine love between married men and women
The stability of families
Women’s moral character is debased by conventional marriage according to Eva Goldman as the woman becomes nothing more than a slave of her husband. She loses her emotional and intellectual independence and also feels that she is good for nothing apart from the housework and child rearing. Marriage in a conventional sense also affects the love between man and woman as this is normally on equal lines but once marriage is entered into, love disappears in favour of a more strict order of things. Family stability is also corrupted as no love is shown towards children only a sense of order and strict respect.
Identify the following:
Camillo di Cavour –An Italian statesman who was Prime Minister of Italy after unification
Otto von Bismarck – A German statesman who brought about the Unification of Germany in 1871
Victor Emmanuel of Italy – Italian King after the unification of Italy and a great conservative
British Great Exposition of 1851 – The famed exhibition of all things imperial held at the Crystal palce in 1851.
Plombieres Treaty of 1859 Prussian National Liberal Party – An important treaty between Piedmont and Austria over the future of Sardinia
Alexander von Bach of Austria The "Augleich" of Austria-Hungary – King of the Austria-Hungary Empire
Charles Darwin – Scientist and explorer and inventor of the Theory of Evolution
Crimean War of 1853-6 – a war fought over territory in Turkey between the British and the Russians
Henry John Templeton – a leading philosopher in the 19th century
Benjamin Disreali – British Prime Minister who was a favourite of Queen Victoria
Alexander II of Russia – Russian Tsar who presided over several liberal reforms in Russia’s history
Mikhal Bakunin – A Russian revolutionary and theorist of conventional anarchism
The French Boulanger Affair – A French General and reactionary politician in the late 19th and early 20th century
The Dreyfus Affair – a military episode of discrimination in the French army against the Jew Richard Dreyfus
The French C.G.T. – The French Corps de Generals – basically the French General Corps in the army
August Blanqui – A French political activist who was assassinated in 1881