Jicarilla Apache culture, norms, values and symbols
Jicarilla Apache claims to formerly own eastern and central portions of northern New Mexico and some part of southern Colorado. Apache recognizes Arkansas river as their extreme northern boundary, while Canadian river separate them from eastern side, the location around the contemporary place of Mora by way of the southern outpost, then a line ranging north and south after where Chama currently stands by way of their frontier to the west. That portion of their land to which they limited their actual home-grown sites lay amid the thirty-sixth and thirty-seventh grades north leeway, extending no beyond east than existing site of Tierra Amarilla and Springer.
It is difficult to categorize Jicarilla culture wholly with any lone area to which North American Indian tribes are conservatively assigned; Jicarilla cultural loyalty is triple, rather. The material culture and the raiding complexes warpath show a certain angle towards the Plains. Interaction with Pueblo inhabits of the upper Rio Grande left its impression on the growth of a Jicarilla corn hard and in the ritual life. Nonetheless despite the stimulating differentiation to Plains and Pueblo features, Jicarilla culture stands in fundamental pact with a round of traits and beliefs which the Southern Athabaskan talking tribes share amongst themselves. Jicarilla culture best understood as a growth and alteration of this basic Southern Athabaskan outline in terms of Pueblo Plains and influence. In folklore, rites, supernaturals, and the exercise of agriculture, portrays unique co-relations between these two tribes.
Jicarilla tribe remained two bands; The eastern band, named by the Jicarilla plains people and identified in the literature by way of Llanero, stretched east of Rio Grande besides their favorite re-treats on the Sangre de Cristo Mounts. The second group lived west of Rio Grande calling itself sand people, but is known in the literature as the. The variance between the two groups was no extra than a substance of geographic place. Informers attest that cultural or verbal differences amid the two groups existed. Members of dual groups intermarried freely. Habitation is normally matri-local amongst Jicarilla. Consequently, when parents belonged to different groups, while the children became member’s mother pay belongs.
Maasai culture, values, norms and symbols
The Maasai persons compose one of the diverse societies of Africa, inhabiting northern Tanzania and southern part of Kenya. The Maasai has attracted enormous attention and worldly recognized of all the groups in the entire Africa region. However, the tribe developed rather lately from the, nomadic, warrior, pastoral way of livelihood into a more solid people. Maasai cultures remain distinctively the same and lives together as families. The first type of homestead is the enkang, which is where married people live with their kin. The enkang comprises of twenty to fifty huts bounded by a rounded thorn fence. Every household has one or two entrances made through thorny barrier. The wives’ huts positioned on extreme end of the barricaded compound, while the odd numbered spouses positioned on the right end of the entrance, while the even numbered spouses are positioned on the left end side of the entrance. Manyattas counts fifty to a hundred huts housing hundreds of persons and not barricaded. Maasai people do not engage wildlife hunting, with for lions optional, nonetheless instead living off milk and meat out of their own cattle. They also practice gardening, raising, beans, maize, tomatoes, and tobacco amongst other items.
Women are in control of household chores, milking the cows, nurturing the garden, and among others duties. When there is sufficient milk for her household, a Maasai woman may sell her milk for money, which she expenditures to buy beads and other provisions necessary for assembly jewelry and institute uniforms for her kids. Children who attained ages four or five are also obliged to help herding and caring of cattle. Some children attend school while some girls who attained puberty do less shepherding and spend added period helping their mothers together with their siblings in, firewood gathering, and water fetching, and cooking.
Males marry many wives as long as are able to pay dowry. Many wives, cattle, and children are a sign of boundless wealth amongst the Maasai. There are numerous other wakes of passage distinguished with different rituals concerning marriage and elder hood. The ceremony involves slaughtering of animals, be it a cow or sheep, including a fruitfulness ritual and a cleansing ceremonial of the males. Graduating from childhood to elder hood is another important mark in the existence of a Maasai. Individuals above 55 years of age no longer asked to make decisions, but called upon to advice. They are vital to different rituals; their presence assures the holiness to the rituals.
Traditional death rites involved merely leaving a corpse out in the wild for hyenas to scavenge; however, the exercise of burial has change more widely. The corpse wrapped in a hide of specific animal, reliant on the status of the individual who deceased. An ox killed upon the demise of a grown-up or elderly man. The corpse wrapped in the special skin after being foamy in the oil and skin of the. The corpse buried, retained on its side facing eastwards. Accordingly, when a woman dies, a black ram slaughtered, wrapped in the traditional ritualistic sheepskin. The corpse is also foam-covered with oils and fat from the sheep while her beadwork stands removed before the funeral. In addition, if the woman had no child, or if a child or a warrior dies, no animal killed. If a baby dies. If a ritual trailblazer dies, the body buried and mounted with stones.
Cronk, L. (2004). From Mukogodo to Maasai: Ethnicity and Culture Change in Kenya. Westview Press.
Veronica E. Velarde Tiller, M. M. (2012). The Jicarilla Apache of Dulce. Arcadia Publishing.