African American History
Discursive formations an explanation of the human behavior attempts to undermine the archeological historical analysis. In the discursive formations analysis, human beings are not the center analysis to avoid problems associated with anthropological approaches used earlier. This discursive formation analysis can be used in explaining the revolutionary discourses that constantly undermined the history of Europe towards the end of the nineteenth century. At the end of the middle ages, there was an increased power struggle and increased women's participation in social and political activities. The same period experienced the first wave of feminism when women's emancipation movements covered the period of enlightenment since the French revolution and beginning of the first world war. The romantic nationalism discourse has been another aspect during the great war. German romanticism originated from France. For example, the slogan ‘back to nature’ by Rousseau reflected his conscious revolt against the rising enlightenment spirit emphasizing on the systematic and sentimental thoughts of rationalism.
Revolution and Romantic Nationalism Discourse During the Great War
The great war is characterized by an increased revolutionary attitudes characterized with an increased patriotism and enthusiasm towards fighting for one’s country. These transformations can be used in explaining discursive formations in romantic nationalism and revolution during the Great war. Romantic nationalism was referred to as romanticism or romantic movement in the 19th century. It is closely related to certain specific political sentiments, which were common appearances at the end of the 19th century, and they had a great influence on the global politics until in the middle 19th century.
Nationalism, a common term used in reference to citizen’s love for their country, was a common feature during the great war, especially after the French wars and the beginning of the first world war. The period experienced an increased number of women's movements, which were fighting for women's suffrage reflecting the discourse of the revolution during the great wars. This was due to the role women played during the war enabling them to understand their the importance of their services. In this regard, there was a revolution, which changed numerous political systems after the war. For example, there was the emergence of social and liberal parties, which became very influential absorbing the increasing demands from feminists suffrages. This presented the discourse formation during the revolution that led to significant changes in the political and social systems.
The first world war marked an important point for women’s feminist movements, especially the European Women Emancipation Movements. Their achievements motivated numerous feminists, who later became actively involved in politics as women who were interested in politics were not restricted. However, research has found some degree of stagnation in the discourse formation and the rise of women's movements in numerous European countries. This stagnation was further worsened by the existing authoritarian and political regimes which were existing between the wars. However, the connection between different nations, national and women’s movements was very close intertwining gender and national identity. The evolution of the women’s Emancipation movements coincides the development and the formation of the modernity.
Romantic nationalism adherents developed numerous fruitful ideas, which stimulated influence, in different diverse schools of thought, in the discourse formation. The practice of the ideas presented by romantic nationalism in Germany brought to light diverse features, which had not been observed before in the political system. The German leaders were also inclined into the philosophical reflections of romantic nationalism with the dream of higher unity in all phases of human life. For example, activities such as religions, science, art, politics and art among others involved the reflections of nationalism. Romantic, nationalist ideologies spread not only in Germany, but throughout Europe, in the 18th century. However, towards the end of the 19th century romantic nationalism changed from nationalistic ideologies to race based ideologies. Racist theories highly influenced the romantic nationalism ideologies, which were widely gaining acceptance and increased claim that the European races were superior to other global races. Therefore, the feeling of superiority towards other races made them feel that they had the right and power to rule over other races.
However, it has been recognized that the romantic nationalism spread quickly in Germany as their leaders supported the hierarchical ideologies. It led to the rise of a feeling of superiority commonly referred to as ‘the German Spirit’. For example, the leadership of Hitler was developed in entirety from the influences of romantic nationalism idealism that led to increased oppression and misery for the perceived lowly communities. The discursive formation of romanticism in Germany was accelerated by increased growth of occults and extreme racialist doctrines in the early 1918 and 1920s. They have been attributed to the rise of Nazism, which was among the most brutal regimes in the European countries.
Industry, Capital and Ideology Discourse During The Great War
The most profound, fundamental and enduring effects of the Great War of 1914-1918, were the effects on the economic system and European dominance of the world. This discourse will focus on the role played by the US in financing and mobilizing the war, which led to a shift in capital and economic ideas exploring the role of government in economic activities. When the Great War started in 1914, the US economy was experiencing a recession. However, with the start of the war the US economy experienced a boom from 1914 to 1918 since the Europeans were purchasing goods from the US to facilitate the war. It is essential to note that the European economic systems had shut down as the majority of the industries had closed down, and the majority of labor was focused into the war. At the beginning of the war, the US held a neutral position, which played an imperative role in the development of the economy. This reflected a discourse shift of world economic powerhouses of Europe towards America. The recession prior to the war in the united states was characterized by high unemployment levels, which reduced significantly.
The Great war had significant impacts on the global industries and capital highly dominated by the Europeans. The position of the US in the war enabled the government to guide production through controls such as price controls. These controls were administered by various administrations boards established to provide guidance during the war. Some of the agencies were established after the US entered the war. However, they played an imperative role in reallocation of resources and increasing production in the country, which has shaped the global industries, capital and economic activities. The Great war has been used in explaining the global economic systems discourses and the shift of European industry and economic dominance.
At the beginning of the Great Wars, the US was a net debtor in the international capital markets. However, after the beginning of the war, the US initiated huge investments internationally, especially in the Latin America, which were previously occupied by the Britain. The British was weakened even in the aftermath of the war, which made the US take the position occupied by the British and other major European exporters. This led to the emergence New York city as the ‘new’ London emerging global leader in financial services. The US government focused primarily on the economic aspects of the war improving the country’s economic status to become a world superpower. After the war, the agencies that had been established were disbanded as a result of an increased number of conservative politicians.
Government spending towards war related activities remained high due to expenditure such as veteran benefits. However, the economic realms and confidence in the economic system created during the war remained high and centrality ideologies created during the war played an imperative role in solving preceding economic issues that faced the economy. For example, during the Great depression the programs, which were adopted by the government in the 1930s were a reflection of the world war I precedents. The majority of the political and economic leaders in the US learned their art from the great wars, which had enabled them to generate numerous ideas on leadership.
An ideology presents a system of ideas attempting to reflect and explain the reality. The complexity of explaining and understanding the reality forms the basis of formulating ideologies. However, ideologies are formulated to reflect the interests of a group of people, which in some cases are biased, but others present a true reflection of the reality. In the modern phenomenon, ideologies have been related to political and economic circumstances experienced in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. For example, after the French Revolution, there was an increased development of new governments, which varied and differed with the previous governments. The industrial revolution in the 19th century was another another economic making that presented a new complex and insecure economic situation around the globe.
The political and economic ideologies formulated during this period after the French revolution and prior to the Great war contributed significantly towards the beginning of the war. For example, the ideologies that were formulated after the French revolution included conservatism an ideology that values only value the status quo accepting change reluctantly and slowly. Therefore, the basis of this ideology is the aspect that human processes are products of a gradual process and endurance has been created as a result of their effectiveness over a long period of time. Therefore, according to conservatism ideologies, changing these institutions is not prudent and realistic to replace the existing with new institutions as it would result in chaos. This resulted in the hereditary and landed aristocracy who aimed at maintaining the status quo. However, there were a number of privileged individuals among the unprivileged individuals in support of a different viewpoint and ideologies presenting the ideas of Enlightenment advocating for fundamental changes. As a result, liberal revolutions in France and America started, which also led to a resurgence by conservatives.
The ideology of liberalism was an ideology formulated advocating for equality and opportunity for all people. This ideology presents the government as an institution whose primary role is enforcement of the law. Liberalism expresses the ideologies of equality meaning that all people are guided by the law and no one is above the law. Therefore, a country is guided by a constitution, which is developed by representatives of the people. Economic liberalism advocated for non-interference by the government in the economic activities. This was a complete reversal from the prior mercantilism ideologies which were prevailing.
The presence of conflicting ideologies led to opposing views against different world leaders that led to the start of the great wars. For example, liberalists could not stand conservatism and conservatives could not embrace liberalism leading to conflicts that led to the war. This discursive explanation of the major factors leading to the great war presents ideologies which were intertwined. For example, the issue of nationalism and romanticism conflicted with liberalism ideologies and the period of enlightenment leading to conflicts.
Therefore, there were numerous discursive formations that led to the Great War. For example, there was a revolution in the political systems characterized by increased liberalism and increased women's participation in the political and social processes. Romanticism was another major aspect practiced by the Germans leading to the Great wars. For example, historian researchers have identified Hitlers as a making of romanticism and the introduction of various systems such as Nazism. Hitler contributed significantly towards the start of the Great War. Global industrialist and capital realms also contributed and changed significantly before and after the end of the war. Ideologies developed after the French revolution are significantly attributed to start of the great wars as the warring countries differed in economic and political ideologies.
Adams, John. "IDEOLOGY." 2013. HS-107 Readings. 14 December 2013 <http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/westn/Ideology.html>.
Black, Jeremy. The Great War and the Making of the Modern World. London: Continuum, 2011.
Knutsen, Karen Patrick. Reciprocal Haunting: Pat Barker's Regeneration Trilogy. New York: Waxmann Verlag, 2010.