Postmodernism is a term for structurally similar phenomenon in the world of social life and culture of the second half of the XX century it is used for both types of characteristics postnonclassical philosophizing, and for complex styles in fine arts. Postmodernism - the state of modern culture, including the kind of philosophical position, pre-post-modern art and popular culture of this era.
In the early twentieth century classic mindset of the modern era is changed to a non-classical, and at the end of the century - by postnonclassical. To fix mental specificity of a new era, which was totally different from the previous, requires a new term. Current state of science, culture and society in the 70s of the last century was characterized by J.-F. Lyotard as "postmodern condition." Limbo postmodern held in 60 - 70s. Twentieth century, and it is linked logically follows from the processes of the modern era as a reaction to the crisis of its ideas, as well as the so-called "death" superbases: God (Nietzsche), author (Bart), human (humanitarian).
The term appears in the First World War in the R. Pannwitz "The crisis of European culture" (1917). In 1934 in his book "Anthology of Spanish and Latin American Poetry" literary F. de Onis uses it to refer to reactions to modernism. In 1947, Arnold Toynbee in his book "A Study of History" gives postmodernism cultural sense: postmodernism represents the end of Western dominance in religion and culture.
Announced the "beginning" of postmodernism Leslie Fiedler said article, 1969, "Cross the border, fill ditches," defiantly published in the journal Playboy. American theologian Harvey Cox in his works of the early 70-ies on the problems of religion in Latin America, made extensive use of the term "postmodern theology". But the popularity of the term "postmodernism" has gained thanks to Charles Jenks. In the book "The Language of Architecture postmodernism", he noted that although the word itself and was used in the American literary criticism 60 - 70s to refer ultra-modern literary experiments, the author gave it a fundamentally different meaning.
Postmodernism means waste from extremism, partial return to tradition, the emphasis on the communicative role of architecture. Subsequently, there is an expansion of the concept of content with the original narrow definition of the new trends in American architecture and the new trend in French philosophy (Derrida, Lyotard, JF) to determine the covering began in 60-70 years the processes in all areas of culture, including feminist and anti-racist movement.
Basic Interpretation of the Concept
Currently, there are a number of concepts of postmodernism as a cultural phenomenon, which sometimes are mutually exclusive:
- Jurgen Habermas, Daniel Bell and Zygmunt Bauman interpret postmodernism as a result of politics and ideology of neoconservatism, which is characterized by aesthetic eclecticism, the fetishization of commodities and other distinctive features of postindustrial society.
- In the interpretation of Umberto Eco postmodernism in the broadest sense - is a mechanism for changing other cultural epoch that every time comes to replace the avant-garde (modernism) ("Postmodernism - a response to modernism: once past cannot be destroyed, because its destruction leads to dumbness, it must be rethink, ironically, without naivety").
- Postmodernism - a common cultural denominator of the second half of the XX century, a unique period, which is based on the paradigm specific installation on the perception of the world as chaos - "postmodern sensibility” (Hassan, 1980; Welsch, 1988, Jean-François Lyotard).
- Postmodernism is an independent direction in art (art style), signifying a radical break with the paradigm of modernism (G. Hoffman, R. Coons).
- According X. Leathen and S.Suleymena, postmodernism as an integral artistic phenomenon does not exist. You can talk about him as revaluation tenets of modernism, but the postmodern reaction is seen as a myth.
- Postmodernism is the era, replacing the European modern times, one of the characteristic features of which was the belief in the omnipotence of reason and progress. Breakdown of the value system of modern times (modern) occurred during the First World War. As a result of this Eurocentric view of the world has given way to a global polycentrism (H. Küng), Modernist faith in reason gave way to interpretive thinking (R. Tarnas).
Bauman, Zygmunt (2000) Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Beck, Ulrich (1986) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity.
Benhabib, Seyla (1995) 'Feminism and Postmodernism' in (ed. Nicholson) Feminism Contentions: A Philosophical Exchange. New York: Routledge.
Berman, Marshall (1982) All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity (ISBN 0-14-010962-5).