The period of the 19th century saw remarkable events in the world history. Various political revolutions took place during this period. As far as the Dutch kingdom is considered, the 19th century was the turning point in several ways. At the end of the 18th century, in 1975, the French invaded the Netherlands. In 1806, Napoleon declared his brother Louis as the king of the Netherlands . However, The Dutch kingdom gained its independence after the defeat of Napoleon in 1813 when William Prince became the sovereign of the Netherlands and declared himself as the King of the Dutch and the kingdom as the Dutch kingdom .
In 1815, King William I united Belgium and the Netherlands together as one country. However, Belgium and the Netherlands were too different to be united that the Belgians rebelled against the Dutch kingdom for their and William had to declare independence of Belgium. William I died in 1840 and his son William II as the heir of the Dutch kingdom . In1848, William II introduced a new liberal constitution to transform the Dutch empire into a parliamentary state. The Dutch kingdom had the States General that represented a general electorate, which was strictly limited to the enactment of payment of tax proposed by the government and to approve a long-term budget. After the death of William II in 1849, his son William III continued the transformation of the kingdom .
After Belgium split from the Dutch kingdom and regained its independence, there were great religious differences in the Dutch kingdom. The differences arose between the Calvinists, the Catholics and the Protestant groups . A group of Calvinists split from the Dutch Reformed Church and founded the Calvinist reformed churches in the year 1892. However, in the 20th century, the Nazi Germany occupied the Dutch kingdom and exterminated the Jewish community of the kingdom . This gave rise to two supreme resistant religious groups of the orthodox Calvinists and the Communists. There have been conflicts between the religious groups in the Dutch kingdom for a long time.
The Dutch had established their control effectively over the South East Asian countries of Java and by the 18th century, the Dutch kingdom was able to expand its holdings in Sumatra by the beginning of the 19th century under the reign of William III. Under his reign, William III reluctantly appointed J. R. Thorbecke as the prime minister of the Dutch kingdom who introduced several liberal reforms . The Dutch kingdom also expanded its colonies into the Carribean, India, Africa and a few other Asian Countries . The Dutch started the Cultivation system that collected rent from the farmers cultivating the land in the form of agricultural products, which were suitable for exports. The Dutch Caribbean saw slavery and ill treatment in the form of paying lesser wages to the workers, but it was soon abolished by the Dutch King William III in 1963 .
There is a great impact of the 19th century Dutch kingdom on the present era. The kingdom takes part in all political events and performs its responsibilities as a liberal nation. The Dutch Kingdom negotiates and signs international agreements for the welfare of its people. The King is responsible to sign the Constitutional amendments from time to time to ensure the well being and operation of the country . The legacy of the Dutch kingdom is maintained by the government. The trade of export and import is still followed in the country. The country is the third largest exporter of agricultural products, the prime market being UK and Germany . The Dutch kingdom also has a great impact on the administration carried out in the country. The king is the monarch of the kingdom; however, the main administration is carried out by a group of ministers headed by the Prime Minister .
The 19th century Dutch kingdom also has a major impact on the immigration process. The people have been migrating to countries such as the UK and Germany . The old wars between the Catholics, Protestants and the Jews in the kingdom have led to the introduction of new policies in the present era to maintain a religious tolerance between the groups. The wars have come to an end between the religious communities and the country operates with cooperation and peace between various communities . The Dutch kingdom is one of the economically strongest countries of the world and strives to maintain its position by implementing the old orders with a new regime. Thus, the Dutch kingdom is a classic example of the modern kingdoms.
Oostrom, F. v. (2008). The Netherlands in a Nutshell. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Rowen, H. H. (2013, 11 15). The Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 26, 2014, from Encyclopedia Britannica: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/409956/Netherlands
Schoffer, I. (1973). A Short History of the Netherlands. De Lange.