Vernacular coding for buildings offers a viable architecture that can fit varied conditions based on its nature, reflected as being open ended in nature. For this reason, vernacular coding is applicable in both natural and manmade conditions (Lane, 45). For adequate classification of buildings using the vernacular method, it is necessary to have an adequate understanding of the geographical area. For this purpose, the climate of Riyadh will be put into context to facilitate designing of buildings with the technique. The mentioned City is the capital of Saudi Arabia.
The climate of Riyadh
The Climate of Riyadh is characterized as being harsh, arid as well as being dry. Precisely, Riyadh experiences periods of extreme temperatures with little or no rainfall annually. In the months of January all the way to may, however, the region experiences rainfall averaging at four inches (Moran, 64). Deductively, the region receives an annual rainfall averaging at less than four inches. In addition the region experiences inland winds resulting in extremely hot summers, whereby temperatures can rise as high as fifty degrees Celsius (500 C). Definitely, the more frequent temperatures at such times range at forty five degrees Celsius (450 C). During night time, the temperatures are moderately favorable. During the months of winter, the temperatures at day time average at fourteen degrees Celsius (140 C), while at night they can decrease to freezing levels. Overall, the climate of Riyadh often experiences daytime temperatures ranging at eight degrees Celsius (80 C) to twenty one degrees Celsius (210 C) during the months of summer while the preceding months of winter experience day time temperatures ranging at twenty six degrees Celsius (260 C) to forty two degrees Celsius (420 C)
Ideologies essential in the context of Riyadh
Vernacular coding offers ideologies essential to responding to the prevailing climatic conditions at Riyadh, since vernacular structural design is significant in all climatic conditions (Waldrep, 67). As such, use of both high and low density will be assessed as to which has the capability to deliver adequate outcomes.
High density topology
The proposed high density model will adopt a town-home format, with a commercial space on the first floor and subsequent residential spaces in both the third and the second floors. The Floor Area Ratio for the model will be 2.0. As such, the environmental context for the model will be allow for co-existence of commercial and residential blocks, with space for agricultural activities. Preferred options available for the proposed model include outdoor gardens and greenhouses.
The climate of Riyadh is characterized as being of high temperatures with frequent sand storms. For this reason, high density topology regulations will be applicable in a wide range of urban settings, which correspond to the prevailing conditions. The high density topology provides diverse services inclusive of both commercial as well as residential services, which aim at surmounting over the prevailing climatic conditions at Riyadh. As such, of high density vernacular coding will entail combination of the retail and the residential buildings into one unit containing a retail unit at the ground floor and the residential unit twelve feet above it. Gardening schemes will be available at the back of the retail unit, thus providing inner shaded spaces (Colley, 8). Due to prevalent dry conditions in Riyadh, vernacular coding will utilize slanted roofs, which can capture rainwater, during periods of short rains, which will help in irrigation of the garden schemes enacted behind the retail unit. In order to combat strong winds experienced in Riyadh, the retail unit and the residential unit will have corridors separating it thus allowing for the wind to pass. In addition, the buildings will adapt circular structures, which can combat strong winds. Gardens enacted will be beneficial as they reduce temperatures during day times.
Low density topology
The proposed low density model will be utilized in two varied approaches. The first approach will used for single family households with individual gardens. Precisely, the walls existing between household units will be abolished and replaced with green gardens, which will help control the extreme temperatures at Riyadh. As such, they will have two to three stories with Floor Area Ratio of 1.0. On the other hand, the second approach for the proposed low density model is also purposed for family households. The residential units in this case are large and allow for passionate agricultural practices. Precisely, they are intended for production for sale within the local context. The approach encompasses three main structures inclusive of a garage, a barn, and a house. The second approach has a Floor Area Ratio of 7.5.
The low density topology will be significant to the residential landscape prevalent in the Riyadh region, which has buildings enacted close to each other. The ideology behind the low density topology entails enacting of structures separately, without combining them as in the case of the high density approach. Precisely, the residential are enacted alongside kitchen gardens, which are private. The prevailing climatic conditions at Riyadh do not favor crop-production due to harsh dry conditions. Despite this application of the low density approach will facilitate designation of manageable private gardens meeting the daily requirements of the residents at Riyadh. In addition, the green gardens enacted to replace walls existing between household units will control high temperatures experienced at Riyadh. Undoubtedly, the low density topology is essential for persons who prefer gardens for subsistence consumption.
The low density topology utilizes buildings without floors but allows for spacing’s in between buildings (Lang, 98), which help in regulating prevailing climatic conditions in Riyadh. To curb prevailing winds, the buildings are designed to the inside rather than facing the main street, which faces the northern side of Riyadh where extreme winds originate from. Overall, the low topology facilitates creation of spaces that reduce the increasing temperatures in residential areas surrounding the Riyadh region.
Deductively the vernacular coding architecture suits varied climatic conditions and also gives a reflection of the landscape of a given geographical location. The approach has overcome varied shortcomings based on limitations in locations and times (Scott, 64). However, the vernacular coding is not replicable in other contexts due to changing climatic conditions from various regions. In addition, strategies utilized by the vernacular coding can be difficult to implement in some environments.
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Lane, Barbara. Housing and Dwelling: Perspectives on modern domestic architecture. New York. Taylor & Francis. 2007. Print.
Lang, Jon. Urban Design: The American experience. Sydney. John Wiley & Sons. 1994. Print.
Moran, Daniel. Climate change and national security: A country-level Analysis. Boston. Georgetown University Press. 2011. Print.
Scott, Fred. On altering architecture. Alabama. Routledge. 2008. Print.
Waldrep, Lee. Becoming an architect: A guide to careers in design. Washington: John Wiley & Sons. 2011. Print.