Answer any 5 of the questions
America feared that the Cold War would inspire the Soviet communism nurture egalitarian societies, and prompt the colored people inside and outside America to remain marginal between capitalism and communism. This inspired American policy makers to undermine their practice of discriminating the colored communities. Thus, during the 1960s America witnessed radicalization of anti-racism movements. The Cold War affected the Asian Americans in different ways. First and foremost, a vociferous call by Asian Americans against racism would invite condemnation of the white Americans. Nevertheless, famed Americans of Asian origin voiced against racism. Until the year 1950, the Japanese were kept beyond the purview of new immigration reforms. Early 1950s saw the Japanese given immigration rights to join hands with Americans to fight communism, which had earlier invaded China by the late 1940s. In 1945, America allowed its citizens who fought the war in different parts of Asia to bring their wives from Philippines and China as Filipinos, Koreans and South Asians were allowed to enter America after granting naturalization rights. This in turn created significant gender imbalance, for instance, among the Chinese and Filipino immigrants.
Identify and explain the significance of the McCarran-Walter Act of 1952
The McCarran Act passed by the U.S. Congress in 1952 allowed immigrants from Japan to become citizens of America in addition to allowing Japanese freely migrate into America. Race was no more considered a block either for availing American citizenship or entering the country. However, only one hundred people from Asia were granted immigration into America every year. The act also empowered the U.S government to deport with immediate effect immigrants found to be suspicious and unlawful. Mostly, Chinese immigrants who were pro-labor and supporters of civil rights were victimized and deported under the McCarran-Walter Act. This law also accepted those voluntarily came to get assimilated into the American socio-economic and political structure while keeping away anyone found to be even very remotely connected to communism. The McCarran Act of America, which was vetoed by President Truman, was hailed as the best means of preserving the security of America after the end of World War II.
Identify and explain the significance of the Immigration Reform Act of 1965
The Immigration Reform Act of 1965, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson, was meant for initiating certain immigration reforms in America. According to this law, for gaining lawful admission into the United States, one should have an occupation in America besides having a family member already living in America. Even though the original authors of this law thought that the law would encourage significant number of Europeans moving into America, it in fact significantly increased the number of Asians and Latin Americans migrating into the country. For instance, between the years 1961 and 1970, 33.8 percent of America’s legal immigrants comprised of Europeans, 12.9 percent comprised of Asians and 38.6 percent comprised of Latin Americans. But between the years 1971 and 1980, only 12.9 percent of legal immigrants came from Europe against 35.3 and 40.3 percent coming from Asia and Latin America respectively.
Grace Lee Boggs
Grace Lee Boggs, aged 99, is a popular Detroit based author, activist, feminist and philosopher. A legendary personality to fight for justice in the United States of America, Grace actively participated in all major movements including women’s rights, civil rights and worker’s rights of the 20th century besides influencing local activists of generations. She was born to poor Chinese immigrant parents. Her public life started during the early 1940s with participation in the struggles of the African Americans. Grace is popularly known for her approach which is radical and characterized with clarity and simplicity. Grace was inspired by the works of Hegel, the great German philosopher, whose work indeed inspired Marxism; this prompted Grace to have a more critical stand about the society in addition to steering her deep toward philosophy. She believed that revolution is neither an act of mere protest, nor aggression. She redefined the word revolution by demonstrating that it is something that has to do with deeper human experience, conversely, the ability to renew oneself to transform the whole world. A hardcore activist of Black power movement, Grace boldly challenged the new generations to do away with age old assumptions and think creatively to redefine modern revolution.
Daniel Ken Inouye was born to Japanese immigrant plantation worker parents in Hawaii in 1924 and brought up in Christian Methodist faith when the business communities of the white people dominated the politics on the Islands. Opportunities for Asian American students were also very limited during those days. At age 17, Young Inouye, while he was volunteering at Red Cross, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. Even as America treated many nationals of Japanese origin as traitors unfit for military service, people like Inouye were serving in segregated units. Brought up in Christian faith, Inouye struggled to reconcile the war violence with his faith. He became a sergeant leader and to his own astonishment felt proud at killing the enemies in war. He also served in France, where he miraculously survived an enemy attack, as a lieutenant and won many awards by the time he turned 20. At 23, after having lost an arm while fighting in Europe, he was discharged as a captain. Inouye’s dream of becoming a surgeon received a setback when he lost his right arm in the war; instead, he studied economics and law. Later he served as a public prosecutor in Hawaii and became active as a democrat before being elected as the first U.S. representative from the island. Inouye later served as member of many distinguished committees in the U.S senate, including serving the prestigious U.S. Senate Committee of Appropriations. Criticized and barred from military service during his early days since he was a Japanese American, Inouye went on to become the second longest member to serve in the U.S senate and won the Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest honor for civilians. Inouye rightly testifies Franklin D. Roosevelt statement that Americanism is not about race or color but of mind and heart.