The Koppen climate classification uses factors such as precipitation, temperature and wind to determine the climate type. There are five major types of climate. They are categorized as A, B, C, D and E (Gabler, Petersen and Trapasso, 208).
A is tropical moist climate with high levels of precipitation and warm temperatures averaging over 18°C. It is further subdivided into Af (the tropical wet climate), Aw (the tropical wet and dry climate) and Am (the tropical monsoon). This climate is experienced in places like Caracas (Venezuela) and Mumbai (India).
Climate category B is dry with low levels of precipitation. It is further subdivided into BW (dry arid climate) and BS (dry semi-arid climate). Isfahan (Iran) and Lima (Peru) are some of the cities that experience this kind of climate.
Category C climate is moist, mid latitude accompanied by mild winters. Here summers are warm or hot while the winters have mild temperatures, ranging between 18 °C and negative 3°C. It is further categorized into Cfa (humid subtropical), Cfb (marine). Hamburg (Germany) and Beirut (Lebanon) are some of the cities which experience this phenomenon (Gabler, Petersen and Trapasso, 2011).
Category D climate is mid latitude with cold winters. Its major characteristics include warm summers and cold winter. The warmest month has temperatures above 10°C while the coldest one can go below negative 3°C. Some of the places experiencing this climate are Pyongyang (North Korea) and Helsinki (Finland).
Polar climate is category E (Gabler, Petersen and Trapasso, 210). It has very cold winter and no real summer. Its warmest month does not exceed 10°C. It is further classified into ET, which is the polar tundra and EF, the polar icecap. This climate is common in Mount Fuji (Japan) and Mount Washington (New Hampshire).
Gabler, Robert, James Petersen, and Michael Trapasso. Essentials of Physical Geography. 8th ed.
Belton, CA: Thomson Brooks / Cole, 2007. Print.