Georges (2012) carried out a research to establish relationship between varieties of religious experiences and manifest hate. In his article which was published in journal of religion and society data was collected in different states of USA. The data on level of religiosity was collected and grouped into three categories i.e. high religiosity, moderate religiosity and low religiosity. In determining whether one belongs to any of the group the researcher considered person’s belief on existence of supernatural being. Then manifest of hate index in each state was calculated. A regression analysis which was carried out showed: moderate strong positive correlation of 0.465 between high religiosity and manifest hate, moderate negative correlation of -0.436 between moderate religiosity and manifest hate, finally a weak negative correlation coefficient of -0. 04 were established between low religiosity and manifest hate in American population. A conclusion that, moderate religiosity encourages tolerance was established.
This model was made to establish how the number of smokers change when cigarette tax, GDP and consumer price index change. Data was collected from forty nine states plus the District of Columbia from 1986 to 2006. Then, a regression analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between number of smokers and any of the above independent variables i.e to determine coefficients β1, β2, and β3 . β1 was established to be -0.38 which was interpreted to mean that there exist a weak negative relationship between number of smokers and excise tax. β3 showed strong negative correlation coefficient of- 0.6 between consumer price index and number of smokers while, the correlation coefficient between smokers and GDP was to be found to be +0.03. The researcher concluded that, increased excise tax and consumer price index would discourage smokers but increased GDP would have a positive impact on number of smokers.
The article on the inextricable link between age and criminal history in sentencing aimed at determining the correlation between criminality and age. Therefore, data of 20,844 persons was collected to illustrate how criminality accumulates with age whereby, 16 years was taken as age of onset because no one has a criminal history at this age. A cohort was established from age 16 to 40 years where two categories were developed i.e. group of frequent offenders and occasional offenders. After the data was compiled a regression analysis was carried out to establish the correlation between criminality and age. Whereby, a correlation of positive 0.84 was established between criminal history and age. It was therefore concluded that, it is probable that those who have been frequent offenders may continue even in old age (Bushway and Piehl,2007).
Xiaojin , Kimberly , Les , and Dan (2004) wrote an article on early sexual abuse, street adversity, and drug use among female homeless and runaway adolescents in the Midwest. They collected data from street girls to establish whether they had ever traded sex for food. The respondents were to reply to a closed questioner i.e. give a yes or a no answer. The data was analyzed to determine correlation between homelessness and promiscuity made for survival. They found a strong positive correlation of 0.56. The researcher also tried to establish whether girls who were living with their relatives had ever been requested by their caretaker for sex or were sexually abused. It was found that 72% of the girls interviewed were either sexually abused or requested by their forester parents to have sex.
Jane, Richard and Christine (2002) wrote an article on the relationship between sexual and physical abuse and substance abuse consequences. They carried out an analysis of data 111 female and of 359 male who were recruited from impatient denomination unit. 69% of men and 81% of women reported past physical sex abuse. For the women involved in the study it was established that physical sex abuse with substance use was the same across women of different ages (p=0.59). Unlike for men where those aged 11 to 13 years had a probability of 0.001 while, those above 17 years had a probability of 0.048 to have physical sex abuse being significantly associated with substance abuse.
Georges R.,(2012). ‘’Relationships between Varieties of Religious Experience and Manifest Hate’’. Journal of Religion & Society.Vol 14.
Bushway R., and Piehl K.,(2007). ‘’The Inextricable Link between Age and Criminal History in Sentencing’’. Crime & Delinquency. Retrieved August 23, 2012, from http://cad.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/53/1/156 .
Jane L., Richard S., and Christine L (2002). ‘’The relationship between sexual and physical abuse and substance abuse consequences’’. Journal of substance treatment 22(121)
Sylvain, Serginio . "The Effects of Excise Tax on Cigarette Consumption: A Divergence in the Behavior of Youth and Adults." Michigan Journal of Business 1.2 (2008): 25-55. Print
Xiaojin C., Kimberly, T., Les B. and Dan R (2004). ‘’Early Sexual Abuse, Street Adversity, and Drug Use among Female Homeless and Runaway Adolescents in the Midwest’’. Journal of Drug Issues 34:1