Observer-expectancy effect usually occurs in incidences where the researcher beliefs, ideas, or expectations unconsciously affect the real behavior of the observed subjects. Observer-expectancy effect is commonly known as the experimenter effect or researcher effect. In some incidents, it refers to the situation whereby the researcher willfully or on an unaware level, manipulates the results he she wanted to obtain or observe. For instance, the experimenter, who believes that particular children are extremely talented, might unintentionally behave show good conduct or behave towards the children in means that would encourage the children to perform better than the rest of the children, by simply giving these kids extra praise and attention.
It is very clear that the observer-expectancy effect biases usually occur in many fields such as psychology, political science, history and even sociology; hence the experimenter mainly attempts to avoid such effects by conducting a double-blind experiment. The researcher effect is considered as a threat to a study or research’s internal validity as it can provide the wrong impression or observation as well as results. This can easily make lead to misguiding, misinforming or misdirected the public by giving information that actually does not coincide with the right results. Obtaining unexpected results can only make the experimenter appear skeptical since people will term the results as ridiculous and baseless.
The hierarchy of needs usually dictates that needs are usually divided into several segments, which include physiological needs, safety needs, Love needs, esteem needs and self-actualization. The deficiency and basic needs are usually believed to motivate individuals especially when they are unmet. Additionally, the need for an individual to fulfill such needs tend to become stronger if they are denied for a long period. For instance, the more a person goes without food the hungrier, he or she gets or becomes. It is, therefore, clear that animals mainly deserve moral consideration. Evidently, those animals can be arranged in a moral hierarchy, in which the lowest given group usually deserves no moral obligation or consideration at all. The top group usually deserves a more moral consideration than the second group. The sentient organisms are mainly aware of their existence and hence would love to continue to exist. The sentient organisms may not be self-aware as well as they do not have any single idea of continuing to exist especially in the future.
There are different fields or discipline that we study and find out that they tend to interrelate in one way of the other. For instance, Psychology and Sociology relate in an effective manner. Psychology views how human mind functions, while the sociology applies the idea in evaluating how these individuals apply their minds in order to relate with other people. Psychology also governs the ethics and morals of different people applicable in sociology.