1. Explain the Naturalization Acts of 1790 and 1870.
The act of naturalization of 1790 was the initial effort by the congress to develop an immigration policy. The act constrained naturalization to white individuals who were free and of decent character and had initially stayed in America for a period of two years. The 1870 act on the other had been an initiative by the congress to widen the laws of naturalization in the country so that it could permit the naturalization of African-Americans.
2. How do we explain that the majority of 19th century immigrant groups achieved social mobility while more recent immigrant groups have not?
Most immigrants of the 19th century attained high levels of social mobility as compared to immigrants today. In present day, there are dissimilar rules and regulations that prohibit social mobility of immigrants. This can be associated with the increased security concerns that are experienced in most countries today, hence the need to protect themselves.
What factors must be considered seriously to understand that economic disparities closely follow the lines of race, ethnicity, and national origin (Martinez 15).
Socio-economic distribution of resources as well as an individual’s income level are important factors in understanding that economic inequalities are closely related to race , ethnic and national origin of an individual.
3. What did the 1965 Immigration Act change about U.S. immigration policy?
The Immigration Act of 1965 eliminated the initial quota system that was founded on national identity and developed new immigration guidelines founded on reuniting settler families and drawing trained labor to the country.
4. What did the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1985 change about U.S. immigration policy?
The 1985 Immigration Reform and Control Act brought dissimilar changes in the immigration policy of the United States. Initially, the act mandated the employers to give prove of their employee’s migration conditions and illegalized the hiring of illegal immigrants. Additionally, the act legalized some regular agricultural unauthorized immigrants as well as other immigrants who had resided in the country before 1982.
5. How did the economic downturn of the 1990s impact California sentiments and government actions toward immigrants?
Between 1991 and 1994, there was a serious economic downturn in California. This resulted to various sentiments and government actions especially towards the immigrants. Consequently, the immigrants were largely blamed for this condition in California. Thus, more serious actions were put forth by the government in attempt to reduce the level of illegal immigrants. As a result, immigrants were highly taxed and subjected to tough employment policies in the state.
6. What is Operation Gatekeeper and what are its results on the lives of immigrants?
Operation Gatekeeper refers to an initiative that was first endorsed in 1994 and devised to militarize the boundary between the United States and Mexico (Martinez, 20). The main aim of this operation was to stop unlawful immigration. The operation made the lives of immigrants quite unbearable since it was not easy for them to enter U.S. This however encouraged them to devise other unsafe measures on how they could get into the country, hence heightening the level of illegal immigrants in the country as well as the number of their deaths.
7. What has been the impact of 9/11 on the lives of immigrants in the U.S. and those needing to immigrate?
The attack of September 2011 in the United States resulted to an extension of measures to curb terrorist activities. These measures as a result have largely infringed on the rights and liberties of the immigrants in the United States as well as those intending to immigrate. Various harsh legislations have been passed to guard the movement of these persons in the country.
8. Who and what is an American? What has it taken some Americans, like Chicanos and Chicanas to be included as American? Who are you as an American or what is your relationship to Americans? Use one example from your own life.
An American refers to a person who has access to American rights in the United States of America. It has however been tough for some groups in America to access the rights in the country. Some groups like the Chicanos and Chicanas have for instance had to fight very hard through dissimilar social movements in order to have access to American rights. Personally, I am a citizen of America because I was born in America, of parents who have an American origin hence share American rights with fellow American citizens.
Martínez, Rubén, and Joseph Rodriguez. The New Americans: Seven Families Journey to
Another Country. New York: New Press, 2004. Print.