After 36 years of existence, the Warsaw pact ended in 1991. It was formed in response to the decision by the United States, Canada, and other European nations to rearm West Germany in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. However, by the late 1980’s the soviet and anticommunist movements in Eastern Europe began to crack the Warsaw pact (History 2014). The Warsaw pact collapse was initiated by some series of events that led to its demise finally in 1991.
Poland played a role in ending the Warsaw pact. Brown (70) argues that the dwindling economic condition of the nation instigated a series of strikes, which led to the step down of president Jaruzelki. It led to the free elections being held in 1989. They were the first democratic elections since the communist soviet take over in Eastern Europe. The solidarity group led the coalition government under Prime Minister Mazowiecki. Notably, it was the first instance that communism had surrendered power peacefully (History Learning Site 2013).
The political scene in Hungary demanded change from 1987. By 1988,,, Brown (69) states that Janos Kadar, who was known for instituting liberal communism, was removed from power and replaced by Karoly Grosz. By the following year, it was clear that Hungary was headed for permanent change as the communist party began to split. A group of more liberal leaders replaced Grosz changing the name of the national party as well as adopting reforms that are more liberal. Multiparty elections were finally held in 1990, and the Warsaw pact ended as far as Hungary was concerned (History 2014).
According to Brown (69), East Germany was a huge part of the collapse of the Warsaw pact. In 1989, thousands of protesters took the streets of Berlin, Leipzig, and Dersden after the arrival of the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev (History 2014). Even more people were moving to western Germany, and this raised panic to the Eastern Germany leaders. They saw the only way to resolve the issue was to relinquish the communist leadership. Arguably, it guaranteed that people would stop being angry and moving to the west (History Learning Site 2013). The Berlin wall was opened ending the guaranteed monopoly power to the communist power of the region.
Bulgaria also had a role in the collapse of the Warsaw Pact. It was initiated by a coup against the Bulgarian dictator Todor who had been in power for over 35 years (History Learning Site 2013). The coup is believed to have been spurred by the dictatorial tendencies of Todor, who led to resentment among other leaders. Even though Petar Mladenov, who was a communist, was asked to replace him, the communists did not retain this power for long. By 1991, the coalition took command from the communists, and Bulgaria became a democratic nation.
Changed reached Romania in 1989 December (History 2014). This was stirred by the act of police hilling hundreds of demonstrators who were protesting a Hungarian clergyman. Measures that are more brutal were employed by the police in order to protect the communism power, but this only led to more distress. Romania, however, led a stormy road to democracy compared to the other countries, but multiparty elections were held and the nation began its road as a liberal nation. Other countries including Albania and Czechoslovakia also used act of government and leadership in order to get rid of the communism leadership and finally put an end to the Warsaw pact
After the end of the Warsaw pact, Brown (70) states that, the Soviet Union was left as the only communist country that did not denounce communism. Most of the nations that led to the fall of the Warsaw joined NATO. NATO like the Warsaw pact focused on creating defenses against enemy attack. Ultimately, the Soviet Union lost power over most nations in Eastern Europe. It later changed its name to Russia and has continued to use communism since then.
Brown, John S. "Partnership for Peace Turns 20." Army Magazine 64.1 (2014): 69- 70.
History Learning Site. The Warsaw Pact, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/warsaw_pact.htm
History. Warsaw Pact ends 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in- history/warsaw-pact-ends