Violence against women
Research paper proposal
Any act that emotionally, physically or psychologically harms a woman or a girl is violence against the woman or the girl. Despite race, religion and geographic locations, the acts of violence against women are increasing in every corner of the world. However, intimate partner violence is the most common form of violence against women and girls prevailing in the world. It is one of the serious public health concern and a threat to the women’s rights and to national development.
A. The violence against women has serious health consequences like physical injuries, depression and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), involuntary pregnancies and prompted abortions and even death. Sexually transmitted diseases and infections, high consumption of alcohol and tobacco are other concerns of the violence (WHO, 2005).
The data (WHO, 2005) mostly deals with the health issues of women. The violence lands the women in serious troubles and great distress. Young women are mostly vulnerable to forced sex and rape, acquiring severe health and psychological issues.
Breaking of laws and poor security assurance to women facilitates the violence against them. The violence is the main cause of women homicides and suicides (Campbell, et al. 2003). According to “WHO Multi-Country study on Women Health and Domestic violence against Women,” a study carried out by World Health Organisation (WHO), 15 percent to 71 percent of women suffered from lifetime physical violence (Garcia-Moreno et al., 2005).
B. According a study conducted by Frieze, I.H., Browne, A. (1989), most of the cases of domestic violence remain unreported to the police and other authorities. Brutal forces including weapons are used to hurt the victims physically, psychologically and emotionally.
Despite laws and other legal conventions, women are still unsecure in most parts of the world. The condition is even worse in the conflict of the world. Mass rapes, murder and gang rapes are reported from almost every parts of the world especially from the developing countries. Women are being treated as weak with no rights in most of the countries, especially in the developing countries.
C. The violence against women also includes ‘domestic violence, it is gender-based violence that takes place in a near relationship of like marriage. In this form of violence, the perpetrator (man in majority of cases) uses abusive behaviour against victim (women). It can be perceived in most families (rich, middle class or poor), and despite races and cultures. Also, this form of violence affects the children’s physical and mental aspects (Strauss, Gelles, and Smith, 1990).
It affects the social scenario of the victim, making him or her more vulnerable and weak to deal with the immediate society. Since, children live with their families, they get seriously affected. Their mentality develops according to these setups, resulting in more violence in future.
Domestic and family violence is a social inequality that hinders social development. A study concludes that correspond to 85 percent women constitutes the sufferers of domestic violence (Bureau of Justice Statistics Crime Data Brief, 2003). It supports chaos and confusion in the society, deteriorating the peace and harmony of the world. It has its severe impact on the physical and mental permanence of children. Children who get more exposed to violence become more aggressive during their adulthood.
Violence against women is a serious issue and it need to be addressed at global level. They are subjected to various forms of violence such as physical, emotional, sexual, economic, psychological, trafficking, and genital mutilation etcetera. Even in many parts of the world, women are involuntarily compelled to accept abuse. More firm laws against the violence need to be framed and implemented surely. Also, in most of the conditions, it is the male who dominates resulting in the severe results. The violence is a grave concern that needs to be resolved as soon as possible to save the innocent and precious lives of the women.
Arbetman, P. Lee, McMahon, T. Edward, Edward L. O’Brien. Street Law: A Course inPractical Law. 5th Edition. West Publishing Company, 1994.
Bureau of Justice Statistics Crime Data Brief, Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2001, February 2003.
Campbell, et al. (2003). “Assessing Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide.” Intimate Partner Homicide, NIJ Journal, 250, 14-19. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice.2003
Frieze, I.H., Browne, A. (1989) Violence in Marriage. In L.E. Ohlin & M. H. Tonry (eds.) Family Violence. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Stark, E. and Flitcraft, A. 1988. Women and children at risk: a feminist perspective on child abuse. International Journal of Health Services, 18, (1) 97-118.
Stiles, M. Melissa. “Witnessing Domestic Violence: the effect on children.” American Family Physician. Dec 1, 2002
Strauss, Gelles, and Smith, “Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence” in 8,145 Families. Transaction Publishers (1990).
WHO (2005). Multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women. http://www.who.int/gender/violence/who_multicountry_study/en/
WHO (2010). Preventing intimate partner and sexual violence against women: Taking action and generating evidence. http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/activities/intimate/en
WHO (2013). Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women.WHO clinical and policy guidelines.