(Arab countries illustration)
The present work examines the challenges caused by corruption which is faced by the Arab region states, in particular:
1) the level of bribery in public sector of the Arab countries (the Corruption Perceptions Index and the activity of the Transparency International);
2) the absence of transparency, integrity and fairness in the discharge of functions by the Arab public authorities and the appointment of public officials;
3) high rates of inequality and unemployment between the rich people and the poor;
4) the absence of parliamentary systems and elections for a long period of time;
5) unfair distribution of income.
In this research there have been examined the relevant provisions of such international instruments as: the United Nations Convention against Corruption, the Arab Anti-Corruption Convention. This work also deals with the aims and powers of the Arab-Anti Corruption Organization, with pros and cons of its functioning, describes the peculiarities and connections between cultural differences and rules.
The analysis of the works of Nahid Anaraki, Saadi Abdullah, Martin Beck and Simon Huser allowed me to highlight such phenomenon present in the Arab countries as “political patronage”. Besides it, the work of Martin Beck and Simon Huser brought a new division of the Arab countries caused by the Arab Spring: “stable authoritarian systems” (for example, Saudi Arabia), “unstable authoritarian systems” (for instance, Syria), “stable systems of transition” (take Tunisia) and “unstable transition systems” (represented by Egypt).
As a result, deterioration of the levels of development of various kinds, ethical decadence in public organizations, outbreak of bribery in the public sector which demonstrate the incapability of
the current existing systems and mechanisms in the Arab region. However, it seems to the author that the implementation of the “rule-based society” principle in the societies of the Arab countries in the form this principle is used in the West, will not be acceptable and effective. The Arab region will have to undergo the transitional process from the authoritarian regimes to the democratic and liberal ones itself to obtain its own specific experience in this field.
Let’s take Ukraine, for instance. I think, practically, everyone could hear about the Maidan protesters, the revolution of dignity, calls for joining the European Union and lots of deaths in the name of life without corruption and the destructive regime of Viktor Yanykovych. The Maidan events have been followed by the presidential and parliamentary elections which are hoped to bring certain changes in the development of Ukraine. However, this period in the Ukrainian history is considered as transitional and is characterized by the occurrence of radical political parties, such as “Pravyj sector”. The members of this political party cannot stand autocratic or authoritarian regimes and leaders but they disregard the rules and legislative acts as well. This is also a negative factor undermining a normal democratic sustainable development of Ukraine.
The same case is represented by the Arab region, where in some states the transitional regimes have resulted after the Arab Spring. The Arab countries will go their own way leading to the establishment of sustainability and democracy.