Two Types of Child Abuse and Their Effects on Child Victims
Child abuse refers to any action or a series of actions of commission or omission committed by a parent, guardian, or any other caregiver that cause bodily or psychological harm to a child. Child abuse can occur in school at home or within communities that children interact with. There are various types of child abuse which include: emotional, sexual, neglect, and physical abuse. Child neglect and physical abuse are some of the most common forms of child abuse.
Child neglect refers to a situation where the parent or any other person that has the responsibility to provide basic needs to a child fails to do so leading to deterioration of the child’s safety, health, and well-being. It may include failure to provide shelter, food, clothing, and/or medical care. Neglect also includes failure to offer the needed attention and sufficient necessities to support the survival and wellbeing of a child. Essential necessities include love and encouragement (Theoklitou 64). There are various indicators of a child who is neglected. These include: frequent absence from school, stealing money or food, lack of the necessary medical and dental care, and a child who is inconsistently dirty.
Children who are neglected may experience delays in their psychological and physical development. The physical and psychological delays in development cause diminished neuropsychological functions such as language, attention, social skills, and memory. Children that are subjected to maltreatment while in the adoptive or foster environments may portray varying social and emotional reactions. This is in a bid to regain the missing or safe relationships hence they seek to control their surroundings through exhibiting disorganized detachments. They do not perceive their caregivers as a source of security. They display increased hyperactive and violent behavior that may disrupt the secure and healthy association with their adopted or foster parents. Such children learn to adapt to the abusive caregivers by becoming warily self-sufficient and usually become deceitful, manipulative, and persuasive as they interact with other people during their childhood. Accordingly, children who have been victims of neglect usually have a difficult time developing and sustaining relationships in their youthful years and later in life because of the lack of affection in their childhood years.
Physical abuse entails physical aggression against children by adults. To reduce incidences of physical abuse, most countries have enacted laws that prohibit physical punishment against children. Consequently, causing serious injuries to children may lead to the imprisonment of the culprit. Acts such as rough treatment against a child that can lead to physical injury may in some instances be equated to physical abuse (64). In some instances, physical abuse is considered to be a degrading treatment that extends to corporal punishment leading to the banning of the practice in many countries. Punishment such as slapping and humiliating the child are also forms of physical abuse because they harm the dignity and integrity of the child, although the consequences may not be evident immediately.
Children who undergo physical abuses suffer pain and suffering as well as physical injuries such as bruises cuts, burns, internal injuries, and fractures. The immediate pain will stop as soon as the wounds and bruises are healed. However, in cases where a child is subjected to chronic physical abuse, the child may suffer long-term physical disabilities. Long-term physical disabilities include brain injury, eye damage, or hearing problems. Accordingly, where the physical abuse is considerably forceful the child may undergo seizures or experience permanent deafness or blindness, paralysis, retardation, and even death. The child may also suffer depression, have problems socializing and developing relationships, and may become aggressive and violent towards their spouses and children later in life (Roach 400).
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