For realism characterized the approach to international relations as a reality, which has a certain set of 'reality': military power, economic potential, the national interests of a country, etc. The main purpose of Realism is that states are seeking for power due to their means of either security or domination. Disregarding the logic of appropriateness, all the actions taken by the states are driven by the means of power.
Theory of security dilemma provides the idea, that current international conditions should allow both Washington and Beijing to protect their vital interests, not presenting a serious threat to each other. Nuclear weapons allows major powers are relatively easy to maintain a high deterrent.
The cumulative effect of these conditions substantially mitigates security dilemma. Both Washington and Beijing will be able to provide a high level of protection, both now and in the potential of China's rise to superpower status. This should help to avoid the two states tense in geopolitical relations, which in turn helps to maintain security dilemma at the secondary level and encourage cooperation. The United States, for example, will be able to refrain from responding to the modernization of China's nuclear forces. This restraint will help persuade China that the United States did not encroach on its security - and thus the downward political spiral of nuclear rivalry.
The main idea of liberalism: states are interested in absolute rather than relative benefit for themselves and other states. Between countries, there are many connections and relationships in which force or power is ineffective or irrelevant instrument of policy implementation. Liberal approach assumes an open economy and interaction into world economy affairs. The entrance of China in the WTO is the first step of Chinese involvement into world economy.
Liberal approach’s fundamental goal of states in conjunction with each other - to maximize the benefits of the absolute, not relative and temporary. This theory ideally applied to China’s appearance in Central Asian region. The cooperation between China and five Central Asian republics based on mutual economic benefits by scheme of raw materials from CA states instead of investments and technologies from China. States cooperate with each other when they realize that they have a mutual interest in it and that the interaction is beneficial to each of them.
The importance of increasing economic interdependence offered one line of reasoning justifying optimism about the likely impact of China’s growing capabilities. The main idea is that incentives for states to contain their international disputes when the costs are great and the benefits from the use of force are small.
More importantly growing economic interdependency has transformed the relationship between China and the rest of the world in a constructive way. On the one hand, China has become more dependent on the rest of the world to sustain its current growth. On the other hand, China’s fast economic development stimulated growth and changes in East Asia as well as in the world. China, according to the liberal perspective, has become an engine of growth and a catalyst for regional integration
For constructivists most fundamental position is that social reality neither consistently given nor predetermined rationally. Constructivism emphasizes the social nature of international relations: the international system is created, reproduced and can be transformed only through the interaction of agents.
Constructivists approach shows China’s role and impact in regional integration and policy in East Asia. Scholars based on cultural and historical bases, so Chinese influence in regional policy is quite obvious.
For constructivists, whether China poses a threat to East Asia is not determined by China’s substantial growth in economic and military might. Rather, it is about imagination. In other words, it depends on the perceptions of how other states interpret China’s behaviour. Countries like Taiwan and Vietnam may consider China as their real threat to their security of the states as Chinese economic power becomes the next super power. Others like Japan and South Korea could be happy about another big market in China and use this market as their economic growth and happy about finding new big market to sell their products. As constructivism focuses on how Norms shape Identities of the States which shape state interactions, Constructivists will think it will be different to each other countries how they perceive China being the new world power: some may be threat to their countries and others may be new opportunity.
Conflict management from the standpoint of constructivism - is nothing more than a control group behavior of its members, treating them as a social group in which the behavior of the members of this group regulate social laws. Talking about China’s role in managing international conflicts, Chinese authorities prefer the way of “peaceful rise”, according which they don’t resort to military force. In addition, the program of “Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence” contents the principle of non-interference and friendly relations with neighbors.