Governments and international organizations engage in different types of diplomatic strategies on matters pertaining international relations. These include trade, conflict resolution, arts and culture, environment and human rights. The types of diplomatic actions include hostile diplomacy, adversarial diplomacy, coalition diplomacy, and mediation diplomacy. Following are real world diplomacy situations which illustrate the types of diplomacy and policy making governments adopt.
- Solar Panel Tiff
In March 2012, United States imposed duties on Chinese solar panel manufacturers between 2.9% and 4.73% after they found that the companies had benefitted from the subsidies and had dumped their products onto the US market at below the cost of production (BBC.co.uk). This diplomatic action, illustrates the use of adversarial diplomatic strategies by the United States government. This usually happens when economic interest are at odds and negotiations involve trade sanctions and penalties.
- The Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sets binding obligations on industrialized countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (Kyoto Protocol UNFCC.int). As part of this International Treaty, 190 developed countries (All UN members except Afghanistan, Andorra, Canada and the United States) have agreed to enforce legal reductions in their emissions of greenhouse gases (Kyoto Protocol UNFCC.int). This is an example of coalition diplomacy, where countries with similar interests, often in opposition to few other countries align together.
- Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban Missile crisis is a classic example of hostile diplomacy, where United States and Former Soviet Union were engaged in a hostile confrontation during Cold War. After a failed US attempt to overthrow the regime of Fidel Castro in the Bay of Pigs operation, Soviet Union decided to place its nuclear missile on the soil of Cuba to deter any future invasion attempts (Thinkquest.org). All negotiations between the United States and Soviet Union were conducted in hostile situations, where both states were ready to go at war at the smallest act of aggression from either side. A series of diplomatic negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union, led to the establishment of direct telephone communication between Washington and Moscow also known as Hot- Line Agreement of 1963 (NewYorkTimes.com).
- Camp David
The 1978 Camp David Accords signed between Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on US soil at Camp David, is an example of Mediation Diplomacy (PBS.org). These peace agreements were the result of 14 months of diplomatic efforts by Egypt, Israel with the help of United States. The main goal was to focus on a peaceful resolution to the dispute between Israel and Egypt and initiate the peace process in the Middle East.
“An Overview”. PBS. PBS.org. Web. 19 March 2013.
“An Overview of the Crisis.” Oracle Thinkquest. Oracle Thinkquest. Web. 19 March 2013.
“Hot Line Opened by U.S. and Soviet to Cut Attack Risk.” New York Times. New York Times, August 30 1963. Web. 19 March 2013.
“Kyoto Protocol.” United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. UNFCC.int/kyoto protocol. Web. 19 March 2013.
“US Imposes Solar Duties on China because of Subsidies.” BBC.co.uk. Web. 19 March 2013.