Questions and Answers
The word technology has extensively been used to mean practical and productive advancements which are made in tools and devices which are used in making work easier. In such situations, technology is usually taken to be something which is beneficial and awesome in man’s life. Nevertheless, this general perception has been challenged by Marx who analyzes some technological advances which have led to total failure not mentioning their cost of maintenance. Consequently, the word technology should not be used to represent advancement which is beneficial and practicable as some technological approaches have led to total disaster in life. In addition, some technological advancement accrues high cost to the society and even consumers themselves to be termed as a beneficial project (Bernward, 1999).
2. Langdon Winner has vividly analyzed the use of technology in political moves and advances. Winner considers two sides of technology as intrinsically political. As an elaboration, he considers situations where technology is used to draw political influences for the benefit of one particular political group while suppressing the rest. He considers the use of radio by the government of North Korea to create some influence to the public through creation of propagandas (Pojman, 2002).. In addition, he evaluates technological to be politically instigated as witnessed by various nations which are objected in developing advanced weapons. Such technological moves are mainly driven by political concepts and the competitive nature of man. Conversely, some technological moves have a neutral approach especially when designed to benefit a large of individuals from a given community.
Manhattan-Long Island railway catered for a substantial number of passengers even before the initiation of the construction of parkways on Long Island. This railway line was receiving a substantial number of users and the construction of parkways on the Long Island was just meant to supplement the services offered by this railway line.
Production of pig iron was a process which required an application of a substantial amount of heat from a continuous reliable source. British forge masters preferred to use coal rather than charcoal because coal provided a considerable higher amount of heat per unit of coal as compared to that released from the charcoal. In addition, these British forge masters acquired available cheap labor to mine and load these extracted coal (Langdon, 1980). This cheap labor was obtained from peasant farmers who entirely relied on farming and other uneconomic activities to make a living. British people had a general knowledge on the operation of steam engines and they clearly understood that the higher the amount of heat released from a given source of fuel the better the operability of that steam engine. Apart from the amount of heat released from coal, the process of obtaining charcoal for use was a bit cumbersome and tedious unlike coal which only needed to be mined from specific place.
Steam locomotion was the first engine to be used to ferry both passengers and luggage from various destinations to others. British people are considered to be the first people to develop these steam engines and subsequently spread this idea to other nations such as the United States of America, Asian countries and lastly the African countries (Leo, 1994). This advancement made by the British people is associated by their early civilization characters supplemented by their scientific innovation and philosophical thoughts. As early as the eighteenth century, British people had made recommendable invention associated with science. Search innovations were enhanced by the learning institutions which were initiated by British people as early as the seventeenth century.
The process of industrialization in the United States of America was initiated by the Europeans after the introduction of some technological devices and knowledge in general. Some of the industrial centers which were first to be initiated in those days includes the textile industry, the pottery industry and the transport industry after the introduction of the steam engines. Nevertheless, these industries were never considered to be conducive to the natives in a number of dimensions. For instance, employees who worked in these industries were subjected to hard labor with unfair levels of compensation despite the risks which they were exposed to in these industries (Bernward, 1999). In addition, the emergence of these industries led to the death or closure of handcraft home industries despite the number of people who depended on these home-based activities to make their living. People had to leave these activities associated with handcraft and seek alternative economic activities especially working in these introduced industries.
Varmint is a general word which is used in the United States of America to refer to a common group of pests which are notoriously known to destroy crops in farms. This group may encompass rodents such as hare, foxes, rats and mice to mention but a few. Nevertheless, the two varmint’s species which are from the American origin and found in Europe include the hare and mice species. They notoriously invaded a number of farms in Europe but later discovered to be from the American origin.
Industrial revolution in the Great Britain was contributed by a number of factors as explained by Cross and Szostak. However, spread and dissemination of knowledge from one sector to another and from one generation to another was the major contributor in the witnessed tremendous advancements in this revolution period. Workers in a certain industry had to pay a study tour to other industrial sectors in order to obtain knowledge. In addition, informal philosophical gatherings or groups were responsible for the spread of this knowledge from one region to another. This led to a rapid spread and subsequent revolutionary activities within the region (Pojman, 2002).
Bernward, J. (1999). "Do Politics Have Artefacts?” Social Studies of Science 29, 3 (1999), pp.
Leo, M. (1994). “The Idea of Technology and Postmodern Pessimism”, in Does Technology Drive
History (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1994), pp. 237-258
Langdon, W.(1980). “Do Artifacts Have Politics?”, Daedalus 109, 1 (1980), pp. 121-136
Pojman, L. (2002).PHILOSOPHY: The Quest for Truth. Oxford University Press .