Closed-system theories are the easiest and most widely employed because explanations of occurrences or events do not require external aspects in independent organizations. In the opinion of Rnssellt (2009), closed-system theories depend on internal institutional processes to explain or account for firm behavior. Rnssellt (2009) offers the example of the current penitentiary having a closed-system facility with independent entities complete with recreation, vocational training, medical facilities, and group or person counseling. On the contrary, open-systems theories denote characterization of firms, which emphasizes their greater external setting and seeks to elucidate institutional behavior by using events and factors occurring outside and within the firm (Rnssellt, 2009). The distinction is that while closed-system theories are always emphasizing internal occurrences, open-system theories do not restrict themselves and explore beyond the internal events, considering all issues. With regard to the police department, open-system models are preferred as it considers all factors, entailing how offenders are treated. Moreover, they know of the treatment offenders receive in other police departments (Rnssellt, 2009).
Environmental Factors that may affect a Police Department
Leadership can be in three categories. Those categories entail upper, middle, and lower management. Leadership is a factor, which may impact the criminal justice agency as the police department.
Influential stakeholders including community groups, employees, and political bodies can affect a police department. Political bodies appear to influence many issues. The influence from political bodies cannot be a positive move. Community groups can influence operations of the police department. A successful influence succeeds in ensuring the significance of what must occur within the community does occur. Employees like officers influences daily operations of the police department.
Culture can be a factor, which involve the police department. Example of culture is when a diverse police department exists. The diversity within the police department indicates less possibility of frustration from the victims and the officers when a language barrier exists. A diverse police department indicates that a witness or a victim can feel inclined giving information to an officer.
Goals or Priorities Each of the Factors Identified Affect
The goal of protecting the community through removing criminal from streets and punishing offers for the offences committed are affected to a greater level by leadership, influential stakeholders, and culture within the police department (Rnssellt, 2009).
Strategies for Handling Adverse Environmental Factors
Working with members of the community so that actions of enforcement, policies, activities, and programs responds directly to pertinent issues within the jurisdiction of the police.
Rnssellt, G. D. (2009). Liability and criminal justice management: Resolving dilemmas and meeting future challenges. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 2(1), 6-9. doi:10.1007/BF02887497