PHILOSOPHIES OF THEORISTS;
According to Lombroso, the prevention of crime is the unique trial which aims at decreasing victimization and prevent crimes and offenders. This is an application of the government with very specific policies to prevent and control the rate of crime while maintaining criminal justice and enforcing the law. Lombroso held that crime is basically a characteristic behavior to humanity. Lombroso also utilized the concepts basing on early eugenics, psychiatry as well as physiognomy to emphasize his opinion. He points out that criminality is an inherited behavior and someone who is born a criminal can easily be known by his or her physical defects that confirm a criminal is an atavistic or savage.
Bentham in his philosophies believes that nature has put human beings under the leadership of two sovereign masters which are pleasure and pain. This two determine what we ought to do and what the future require us to do. However, the standard of wrong and right and the chain of effects and causes are increased to their throne. Pleasure and pain govern us in everything that we undertake as well as everything that we speak and think. All the effort that can be put in to throw our subjection to this will just serve in demonstrating and confirming it. This subjection is recognized by the utility principle
Beccaria contends that Punishment ought to be quick since this has the best discouragement esteem. He shields his perspective about the quickness of discipline by speaking to the hypothesis of the relationship of thoughts. As per associationists, on the off chance that we know the guidelines by which the psyche join together two distinct thoughts, then we can fortify their affiliation. For Beccaria, when a discipline rapidly takes after a wrongdoing, then the two thoughts of wrongdoing and discipline will be all the more immediately related in man’s brain. Additionally, the connection between a discipline and a wrongdoing is more grounded if the discipline is by one means or another identified with the wrongdoing.
Howard Becker tested the positivist hypothesis and contended the face that the investigative request must firstly consent to qualitative proclamation about wrongdoing. He likewise contends that researchers don't try taking a gander at the naming procedure of crooks, the way that distinctive social gatherings characterize guiltiness to appear as something else, and researchers should likewise recognize the ethics of the social gatherings making the power to rebuff culprits in that society, so far positivism is simply dependant on wrongdoing details contends Howard Becker
HISTORY OF CORRECTION
Basically, prison is amongst various sanctions that are available to the courts to handle individuals who are involved in criminal offences. In the early 1700’s, sanctions for the criminal contact mostly public events that were meant to shame those involved in offence and prevent others from committing similar act. These entailed the pillory, ducking school, stock and branding as well as whipping. Death was the sentence for several other offences during that time. During that time, the prisons tended to be somewhere for individuals to be held prior to their trial. Local prisons held both men and women including boys and girls.
It is suggested that during this period, the prisons were maintained badly and were usually controlled by prison warders who were very negligent. There were many loss of lives resulting diseases such as gaol fever. Even though eighteenth century has been characterized as a period of the bloody code, there were rising opposition towards the death penalty unless it was a serious crime. Such harsh punishments were counterproductive considering that juniors were denying to get burglars guilty of mistakes that would result to execution.
Transportation was a highly utilized system for discarding indicted individuals. Convicts were transported to the British states like America until the end of the American War of Independence in seventeen seventy six (1776); Van Diemen’s Land and Australia. Transportation was diminished toward the end of the eighteenth century. Different authorizes in this manner must be found. The two noticeable choices were hard work, and for those not able to do this they ended up in correction house. This kind of practice lead to the utilization of jail masses from the year seventeen seventy six (1776) until their elimination in in the year eighteen fifty seven (1857).
The main large portion of the nineteenth century spoke to a watershed ever. The death penalty was presently viewed as an improper approval for some unlawful acts. The disgracing assents, similar to the stocks, were viewed as obsolete. By mid-century, detainment had swapped the death penalty for most genuine offenses with the exception of that of homicide. The improvement of the jail framework proceeds. Toward the end of the nineteenth century acknowledgment youngsters ought to have separate jail foundations - hence the bursal framework was presented in the Act 1908 of Crime Prevention. Borstal preparing included an administration taking into account hard physical work, specialized and instructive guideline and an in number good air. A youngster in borstal would work through a progression of evaluations in light of benefits until discharge. The nineteen nineties (1990s) have likewise seen the presentation of detainment facilities which are manufactured, financed, planned and keep running by privately owned businesses.
Jones, M., & Johnstone, P. (2012). History of criminal justice. Waltham, MA: Anderson Pub. Co.