The movement of existentialism and the revival of religion were carried out following the collapse of civil values in the twentieth century in several ways. Different philosophers came up with different views towards extentialism. The aspect of extentialism became associated with the cultural movement. Formerly, people used to perceive extentialism as a term used to describe existence. However, following the postwar era, there was extensive dissemination of the philosophical and literary postwar output. This lead to exchange of ideas among the philosophers and the academic elites. As a result, there was development of new theories that could justify the aspect of existence (Hunt, et al, 2009, p.916).
As asserted by hunt, et al, (2009), the current perception and inquiry into the idea of existentialism distinct from the former. The current inquiry does not base its claims on the idea of existence alone.
Firstly, the philosophers claim that thinking about human existence requires new categories, which are different from the ancient repertoire (Ricoeur, 1992 p. 32). They stress the fact that understanding human beings should not be based on the material substances with fixed belongings nor should they be perceived as subjects interrelating with world of objects (Hunt, et al, 2009).
The second claim was that the aspect of extentialism should be viewed more than what natural scientist believe. Natanson (1968) challenges the philosophers who normally imagine that the truth pertaining life and human being is solely realized through the involvement of the principles of natural science (Natanson, 1968 p. 54). He asserted that understanding psychology or other form of natural sciences that deals with studying the human being is not enough for someone to claim that he or she has understood the principle of extentialism.
He further challenge philosophers who believe that human being is composed of mind and body as well as the physicalist who believe bases their explanation of human existence on the basic physical constituents of universe.
Other ways through which extentialism should be explained based on aspects such as:
Freedom and value
Haugeland (1998) claims that existence is an issue of oneself. He continues to stress the fact that existence should not be based on the physical and material composition. Existence, according to them is internal and is better explained from the individual point of view.
The sector of religion also went through some transformation. Formerly, people used to stress the literal truth of the bible. However, the information revolution that came about led to critical analysis of some of the biblical concepts. People began interpreting the biblical scriptures from the philosophical and theological point of view. Spiritual life took another turn. There was internalization of the spirituality.
Hitler and Stalin constitute the two well-known dictators in the world history. The two shared a lot of similarities. Their backgrounds seem to have had similar adversaries. They were also both leaders in their respective nations. However, what is striking about the two concerns their brutal nature. Each of them was responsible for the death of millions of people. They brought about a lot of suffering. Consequently, talking about the two dictators is like dealing with a battle of wills between two deranged individuals (Hunt, et al, 2009, p.916).
Haugeland, J., 1998. Having Thought: Essays in the Metaphysics of Mind, Cambridge MA:
Harvard University Press.
Hunt, L; Martin, T. R.; Rosenwein, B. H.; Hsia, R. Po-chia; and Smith, Bonnie G.
Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures.” Volume II: since 1500. 3rd ed., Boston, MA:
Natanson, M., 1968. Literature, Philosophy, and the Social Sciences, The Hague: Martinus
Ricoeur, P. 1992. Oneself as Another. Tr. Kathleen Blamey. Chicago: University of Chicago