Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder with about 20 million people living with the condition in USA. It is broadly divided into Diabetes mellitus (DMS) and Diabetes insipidus but the focus of this presentation is DMS which is associated with elevated blood glucose level (Diabetes Guide, 2005) (slide 2). DMS is classified into Type I, Type II/insulin resistance, Gestational DMS and secondary DMs (Slide 3). DMS is caused by insufficient insulin production (Type I), inability of cells to respond to insulin (type II), inability of the woman to produce enough insulin commensurate with growing demand (Gestational) and other diseases e.g. liver and pancreatic disorders) and chemicals (drugs, hormones, excess alcohol) (secondary). Factors such as age (over 45), obesity, inactivity, prediabetes, family history, alcoholism and pregnancy increase the risk of getting DMS (Eisenbarth, Polonsky, & Buse, 2002). (Slide 4)
DMS symptoms include fatigue, increased urination, weight loss, increased thirst and hunger, nausea, occasional vomiting, frequent ulceration and infection of skin and urinary tract, blurred vision and laboured breathing (Slide 5). Diagnosis is based on the determination of glucose and ketones in blood and urine (Slide 6). DMS is usually managed by insulin therapy, drug therapy, meals planning and exercise. Drugs thiazolidinediones, avandia, actose, sulfonylureas ,meglitinides, precise and glyset.DMS is prevented by eating healthy, exercise, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and maintaining a healthy Body Mass Index (Zieve, 2009) ( Slide 7).
DMS is an endocrine disorder characterized by elevated blood sugars and symptoms include fatigue, increased urination and thirst, weight loss and blurred vision. It is caused by insufficient insulin production or cells’ resistance to insulin. Diagnosis is based on urine and blood tests while management is by drug and insulin therapy and exercise and meal planning (Slide 8)
Diabetes Guide, 2005. Available from WebMed <http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/diabetes-overview-facts> [ Accessed 26 March 2011],
Eisenbarth, G., Polonsky, E., & Buse, J., 2002. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. In H. Kronenberg, S. Melmed, K. Polonsky, & P. Larsen 2008., Kronenberg: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa:: Saunders Elsevier.Ch 31
Zieve, D., 2009. Diabetes: A Complex of Causes. Journal of Endocrinology. 46 (4), pp.23-36.