1. Differentiated Instruction is a teaching method that involves matching the instructor’s teaching styles with the student’s learning abilities. It is best achieved by intentionally grouping students of similar academic and learning levels to better facilitate the learning process. It is also achieved by providing several learning options to help the student absorb the information and make sense of the concepts taught.
Struggling – an example of differentiated instruction for struggling students is the development of after-school tutorial programs to focus on the subjects the students are struggling with. Another example is conducting special summer programs to help them understand concepts from the coming school year’s curriculum.
Advance/Gifted – For advance or gifted students, an example is the acceleration of these students to advance courses of the subjects in which they already have advanced knowledge in.
English Language Learners – an example for English language learners is the grouping of students based on their native language. Another example is also staggering the curriculum based on the ability of the students (e.g. basic words, then sentence structure, then correct grammar).
2. There are many reasons why it is important to teach children to learn independently. The first is that teachers usually teach large classes. The second is that children have different learning styles and capabilities. Some students are fast learners, while some lag behind. By learning independently, each student will be able to achieve and exceed their learning goals. Learning independently is beneficially to children for many reasons. For students not yet going to school, learning independently provides them with the opportunity to learn ahead of the school curriculum, as well as to learn about things that interest them that are not in the school curriculum.
In the classroom, learning independently provides the student the opportunity to plan and set his learning goals as well as help develop critical thinking with minimal assistance.
3. 14 Tips for Reading Effectively:
a. If what you are reading does not make sense at first, go back and read it again.
b. It is also good to ask questions in your mind while you read and look for the answers to your questions in what you are reading.
c. While reading a story, try to guess what happens next and see if your guess is right.
d. It is okay to changes your guesses if you get more information as you continue to read.
e. Use your imagination; think of pictures, shows, or events that you can relate to what you are reading
f. If you are not sure what a word means, read it aloud so you can hear it. It is possible that you have already heard it before and can relate it to something you know.
g. If you encounter a word that you cannot understand, write it down so you can look for its definition later.
h. When you read, read with a dictionary beside you so you can look for the definition and examples of the words you cannot understand.
i. After you read a paragraph, think for a while how you would say it if you were the one to tell the story. Paraphrasing will help you remember what you have read
j. Sit up straight while reading. This helps in maintaining your focus while you read
k. After reading, try to summarize all the important information that you have read. It helps if you write down your summary
l. Have a pen and paper beside you when you read. Use it to jot down ideas about what you have read so that you will not forget
m. Make sure that you are reading in a well-lit area. Reading in a properly-lit area helps you keep your focus on what you are reading
n. Close your eyes 20 seconds after every 10 minutes of reading. This would help relieve your eyes from the strain as well as help you think about what you have read without any visual distractions
4. 5 Tips for writing effectively:
a. Decide what you want to write about and list down the order of how you want to write it.
b. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to help you out when looking for words to use.
c. Read aloud what you have written to know if it sounds right.
d. After writing, re-read what you have written and make changes if needed to make it better.
e. Spend as much time re-reading and editing as you have spent in writing.
5. 5 Tips for Speaking effectively:
a. Practice what you are going to say out loud to prepare for speaking in front of a group.
b. Learn the correct pronunciation of words.
c. Stand up straight as this would result into a clearer voice that you can easily regulate and project.
d. Know your subject. When speaking in public, it is important to remember that people may ask question that may not be part of your presentation outline. It is better to be over-prepared than not at all.
e. Use simple language. Do not use overly formal or uncommon words to ensure that your audience understands you
6. 5 Tips for Listening effectively:
a. If looking into the eyes of the person talking makes you uncomfortable, look at the bridge of his nose instead. This gives the impression that you are looking at his eyes, and still helps you keep your focus on that person.
b. Think about the questions you may want to ask after the person finishes talking
c. Ask questions to make sure that you understand what they are saying.
d. If listening to a lecture or presentation, write down ideas or quick notes using words that you can relate the topic with
e. Respect the speaker; do not interrupt mid-speech
7. 5 Tips for Viewing Videos effectively:
a. Know what the video is about before viewing it and think about what you know about the topic.
b. Since videos are usually grouped in segments, think about the video in segments too.
c. Think about a major issue or idea presented in each segment and relate it to the ideas of the other segments.
d. Take down notes; taking down notes help you remember the video
e. Do a follow-up study; if there is something in the video you cannot understand, do a separate research on the topic
8. 5 Tips for Visually Representing you knowledge:
a. Once you know what you want to present, think about several different ways of how you can present them.
b. Choose one way of visual representation that you are good at or comfortable doing.
c. Think about your audience; try to identify what concepts or ideas this specific group of people would best respond to and use that for your visual representation
d. Make your visual representation entertaining as well as informative
e. Use a storyline or catchphrase
9. Metacognition is a higher order thinking involving active control of the thinking process involved in learning. It is often referred to as “thinking about thinking” because it usually involved thinking about “thinking strategies” to achieve a goal.
10. To promote metacognition in the classroom, the teacher should practice it by thinking aloud during planning or problem-thinking situations so that the students can follow the thinking process. It is also helpful to pair or group students in problem-solving situations and ask one student to solve the problem out loud while his group mates listens and asks questions to clarify his thinking process.
Promoting metacognition in the classroom is important because it helps develop the thinking process of the students. By using metacognition, the students are exposed to different thinking processes (that of their teacher and their peer) and will be able to employ these thinking processes as needed in the future. Metacognition helps the student choose their goals, adopt new strategies to achieve their goals, or even develop new thinking processes based on the requirements of the achievement of their goals.