Does Al-Qaeda a represent a ‘global insurgency’?
The September 11, 2011 attacks in the United States can be considered the day that shook the balance of power and peace throughout the globe as the attack instigated terror to reign after decades of peace from the Great Wars. The attack, instigated by an Islamic terrorist group known as Al-Qaeda, targeted several installations showcasing the US’ power: the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Thousands had perished in the attack, plagued the world in fear and a few clamored to find answers as to how such attack existed in this time of peace. The international community, led by the US, immediately mobilized to counter such threat and before anyone could comment, terrorism and groups such as Al-Qaeda grew into something more than just a threat. Some consider Al-Qaeda as just one of the many terrorist organizations bent on causing chaos throughout the globe, especially within their perceived territories. A few would consider the organization as insurgents or a rebellion directed to an authority, but there are some instances on when insurgency does not apply to organizations or groups such as Al-Qaeda. However, looking at the Al-Qaeda’s entire history and structure, Al-Qaeda represents a global insurgency due to the fact it wages armed conflict against the international community in order to create their ideal Islamic regime and expand their influence around the globe.
Brief History of the Al-Qaeda
The Al-Qaeda was created as a response to the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, which caused turmoil within the Middle East. Osama Bin Laden, one of the group’s founders alongside his mentor Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, had lobbied with the Saudi Arabian government and the royal family to stop the US forces from entering the region to protect the country from Iraqi forces. Bin Laden argued that it would be better to use a ‘mujahedin’ army to repel the Iraqi forces. However, the Saudi government did not see this as a viable solution to the issue and led to the deployment of “Operation Desert Storm” in 1991 comprising US forces. Bin Laden and his followers slowly started painting the US forces as occupiers to sacred Islamic ground and must be suppressed. The group was also created to combat the growing Soviet influence in Afghanistan. At first, the group was mostly concentrated in fighting against non-Islamic regimes within its territories while aiding their fellow armed groups in their quest to perform jihad operations in their respective territories. Both Azzam and Bin Laden had also varied as to how Al-Qaeda should grow. Azzam wanted al Qaeda to just concentrate within the region and focus on individual countries. However, Bin Laden believed that the group is a means to aid other Muslims in declaring a jihad (holy war) against the Judaeo-Christian alliance occupying Islamic territories around the globe. Despite this perception, the group mostly focused in aiding its fellow groups and within the region’s conflicts. Some of the militants the Al-Qaeda aided are from the Balkan region, Chechnya, Kashmir and the Philippines.
While the organization slowly mobilized to counter threats throughout the region, the leadership of the Al-Qaeda argued that it was crucial to act upon the current international and regional system because it restraints the creation of Islamic regimes within the region. Both Bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri stated that the only way to ensure this creation is to oust the United States from the region and throughout countries that is still fighting for the establishment of an Islamic regime. Slowly, the group transformed its agenda, ideology and concentration of attacks to comprise targets outside their home base in Afghanistan and Iraq in order to counter the growing US presence throughout the globe with Muslim communities. The group had took into responsibility nine attacks from 1992 to 2000 showcasing its new agenda and target. In 1992, the group claimed responsibility the Yemen bombing that almost killed 100 US military personnel that were waiting for orders to mobilize in Somalia for Operation Restore Hope. In 1993, it is speculated that it had supported bomb maker Ramzi Ahmad Yusuf in bombing the World Trade Center. In that same year, it had also claimed that it supported Somali factions battling against the US forces in Mogadishu. In 1995, it aided the Islamic Group, an Egyptian militant organization, to assassinate Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak upon his visit in Ethiopia. A few months later, a group of Saudi nationals confessed that they attacked a US military base in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia due to Al-Qaeda ideology. A year later, the Al-Qaeda is also seen as one of the perpetuators of the June 1996 bombing in Saudi’s Khobar Towers. In 1998, the Al-Qaeda was also pointed as the perpetuators of the attacks in the US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. By December 1999, the US and Jordanian authorities pointed to the Al-Qaeda for the attacks in several religious sites in Jordan and the Los Angeles International Airport. Finally, in October 2000, supporters of the organization attacked U.S.S Cole while it was in Aden Harbor in Yemen. In most of these attacks, many US casualties have been reported and showed Al-Qaeda’s growing reach . By the time 9/11 was done, the group had stated that their attack was done in response to the fatawa or legal judgment pushed by the Al-Qaeda against the continuous occupation of the United States in the Arabian Peninsula and the holy lands of Islam, by pressing its influence to its leaders and people. The group also declares that the Americans’ aims in the region is a clear declaration of war against Islam and a jihad must be declared against these plunderers .
Definition of insurgency and global insurgency
Experts state that the organization exemplifies all the signs that it represents a global insurgency or a Global Salafi Jihad Insurgency even before the 9/11 attack. However, what exactly is insurgency and global insurgency? There are a lot of definitions when it comes to insurgency, which causes some confusion when referring to groups such as Al-Qaeda. According to author Julian Paget, insurgency is a ‘form of armed rebellion against the government, in which the rebels have the support or acquiescence of a substantial part of the populace’. Non-state actors are usually the ones who conduct insurgency in both overt and covert means, done to change leadership or remove a foreign occupier. Usually, insurgents would use the population against the authorities to sap their confidence and control, utilizing political and military means to prove their point . Upon the time of the 9/11 attacks, the definition of insurgency had changed in context. The US Department of Defense identifies insurgency as ‘the organized use of subversion and violence to seize, nullify, or challenge political control of a region’. Insurgents, under the DoD definition, also utilize any means to achieve their political aims that would enable the creation of a system that would allow their group to take over the population, boosting their control and influence . Global insurgency, in this end, can be seen as an armed rebellion that utilizes subversion and violence to challenge the political control of an authority -may it be a country or an organization – in an international range.
What makes Al-Qaeda a representation of a global insurgency?
Al-Qaeda can be considered a part of a global Salafi Jihad insurgency and as a global insurgency given the five requirements that classifies a group as one. The Salafi movement (also known as the Salafist movement) is a movement amongst Sunni Muslims such as the Al-Qaeda, fighting for the establishment of a traditional and pure Islamic system that is untainted from the speculative philosophy or the kalam. Salafi Jihadists are also millenarian movements or modern movements that aims to re-establishment of an idealized past. In this extent, they would mobilize against anyone who would dominate the ummah (community of believers) as they are corrupt and repressive. Foreign authorities and their supporters are seen as infidels and non-believers by those under this movement. . Under the five requirements, the Al-Qaeda had managed to showcase their qualification as a global insurgency from its ideology to its style of activity:
Requirement 1: The group sustains an ideology shared by high-risk social movements and emphasizes a plan of action to change the current regime.
Under the first requirement, the organization should be able to create an ideology that would provide an immediate solution to social and political problems that has yet to be resolved by their respective governments. The group must also propose a new system that would replace the ‘oppressive’ regime that applies well with the population. Finally, there must also be a guide as to how the group would bring this system into creation and ensure its success. Al-Qaeda supports an idea of “defensive jihad”, the belief that Muslims should fight any perceived attack against Muslims throughout the globe. In its end, Al-Qaeda aims to overthrow ‘un-Islamic regimes’ that oppress their citizens and replace them with genuine Islamic regimes. The group seeks exploit the perception that the Muslim culture has now degraded itself due to the Western imperialists invading the region for centuries. Much like the Crusaders, the United States is seen by Al-Qaeda as an oppressive hegemon trying to influence the Islamic world. Muslims, according to the group, resent the American support of the regimes that are authoritarian and repressive, especially with their support with Israel .
The group also seeks to manipulate the public’s perception over the history of Islam and Christianity. According to the Al-Qaeda, secularism (which is preached by Christianity and the Western ‘invaders’) is foreign to Islam. In this case, pushing for democracy in an Islamic territory can be seen as a direct attack to the religion itself. The group uses this argument to claim that the US is fighting a religious war against Islam. What must be done by Muslims is to fight against the US, convert the country to Islam or destroy it as a threat. In his 1998 fatawa or legal judgment against the US, declaring war against the country, Bin Laden called for all Muslims to call for jihad:
“We – with God’s help – call on every Muslim who believes in God and wishes to be rewarded to comply with God’s order to kill the Americans and plunder their money wherever and whenever they find it. We also call on the Muslim community, leaders, youths and soldiers to launch the raid on Satan’s US troops and the devil’s supporters allying with them and to displace those who are behind them so that they may learn a lesson. ”
The Al-Qaeda is also considered a jihadist-salafism movement member due to it’s “respect for the sacred texts in their most literal form, including their absolute commitment to jihad”. Violence is also advocated by the group as a means to establish the global Islamic state controlled by Muslims and supported by the Islamic texts. Al-Qaeda’s brand of jihadist-salafism demands its followers to adhere to the literal interpretations of the Qu’ran and rejects any form of sources used to support one’s understanding to religious, social and political issues. The ideology itself demands complete dedication to fighting perceived threats and followers should strive for only victory or die as a martyr. Any jihadist that has been inspired by the al Qaeda ideology also states that to attain results, any means and actions must be done for the name of Islam. All of the suicide bombings, torture, and killings they have done are justified actions to protect the Islamic faith. While it can be considered a new militant Islamist group, the ideology the Al-Qaeda reflects showcases extreme passion in promoting Islamic religious, social, and political thought not just within its territories, but also to those it sees as a ‘non-believer’ .
Requirement 2: The group’s leadership is capable of establishing an organization that can support its ideology and attract more supporters.
For the second requirement, the leadership of the organization should be able to sustain this ideology and create an organization that would attract supporters. Insurgencies in any level require the creation of an embryonic organization to ensure the creation of an effective ideology. In an analysis done by the US in 1998, it stated that Al-Qaeda is administered by a council that discusses and approves the operations of the organization. Osama Bin Laden was its spokesperson and one of its top leaders. He would also write many of the organization’s communiques with the world, organizing the entire structure of the Al-Qaeda with his background in adjusting responsibilities and decisions within the organization. The actions of Bin Laden to utilize insurgency through the Al-Qaeda developed since his time in Afghanistan (1980), Sudan (1991) and as one of the proponents of the Taliban in (1996). His role throughout these years slowly enabled him to discover positions such as being a capacity-builder, bankroller, and a leader that helped him organize the Al-Qaeda as it is still seen today.
However, by the time he had been killed on May 1, 2011, Ayman al-Zawahiri, who was second in command took over the leadership. Mustafa Abu al-Yazid is also a part of the original al Qaeda leadership with Bin Laden. He had served prison time in the 1980s due to the attempt in Egyptian President Anwar Sadat’s assassination. Saif al-Adel and Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah are two of the main faces of the organization with Abdullah serving as the finance officer of the Al-Qaeda. Both are wanted for the 1998 attacks in Kenya and Tanzania that had killed 200 casualties. Jordanian Abu Musab al-Zarqawi established the al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) and conducted the same type of terror attacks in Iraq. Zarqawi was killed through an airstrike near Baghdad in 2006, his position had been succeeded by his disciple Abu Ayyub al-Masri. The North African subsidiary of the Al-Qaeda is led by explosives master Abdelmalek Droukdel. Yemen also has its subsidiary of the organization led by Nasser al-Wahishi, the secretary of Bin Laden .
Requirement 3: the group has established an infrastructure capable of fighting in revolutionary warfare.
With the attainment of a massive supporter base, the group must then utilize this advantage to establish a successful style of revolutionary warfare. In order to support this, a process is created to ensure that supporters or individuals are bound to the insurgency movement and indoctrinate this individual to the ideology and narrative of the organization. Members who wishes to join the organization usually have peers who are already included in a social circle or religious center that shares the same ideology of the organization. Recruitment is done anonymously and education or marriage also plays a key role in the recruitment process. Women are also allowed to join in the Al-Qaeda as they support the social infrastructure of the organization and encourage their families and friends to join in the cause. With familiar faces and close attachments to one another, this easily ensures that members would not easily back out from joining the cause.
The recruitment process is also done in foreign soil, even outside the country of origin of potential members. Experts argue that these people who join the organization may have the feeling of being alienated by their peers and by society in its entirety. They may see joining the Al-Qaeda as a means to belong into a society that accepts their beliefs or become affiliated with a powerful organization. It is said that members of the Al-Qaeda are not as creative or open as they are perceived to be as they are easily influenced by the authority to join and support terrorist cells. Terrorist leaders are also seen as charismatic, but very narcissistic. Members are also asked to give up anything they could in the name of their cause and vision. Without sacrifice or violence, the act of terror or insurgency would not be as fulfilling as it is expected by the member. Disobeying any of the commands given to the member may result into shame. The very idea that loyalty and sacrifice are the main themes of Al-Qaeda’s ideology, it then ensures that members are surrounded by the ropes of the organization. Married members are usually potential members of the organization, filling up a majority of the current force of the organization. Children are also included in the population of Al-Qaeda fighters. Only a few have a criminal or psychological history, which makes them easy prey for recruiters .
In a recent discovery of the US Department of Defense, members of the Al-Qaeda come from large families and the reason they wish to join the organization is to stand out from the rest. However, some have been interviewed to have joined the organization in secret as they may be rejected by their families. There have been interrogations with caught members of the organization that stated that also said they joined the Al-Qaeda because they wanted to see Americans get killed, but they were disenchanted when they saw that it was the Iraqis that were being killed. These members usually meet their recruiters through acquaintances that later on turned as a friendship, offering to teach the basics of Islam and slowly led the discussions to joining the organization. Foreign fighters of the organization argue also that the expectations they were taught of by their leaders were not the reality they have seen upon their arrival in Iraq or in their training facility. Some were even disturbed that they were belonging to the losing side. Foreign fighters are flown in Damascus, Syria before they are hauled into illegal carriers to be smuggled into Iraq and it may take months. Treatment is not as kind as well according to the interrogated fighters. Foreign fighters are even looked down upon by the Arab members and some even had to lie about their nationalities while mingling with the public. Some members are even forced to become suicide bombers, being told by the leadership that it is their duty to accept the position they are given as it is their role for the Jihad. Almost 90% of suicide bombings in Iraq alone are done by foreign terrorists, producing the largest destruction and casualties .
Supporters of the Al-Qaeda can come from any social group throughout the 60 countries the Al-Qaeda is known to have an ally or an autonomous cell. These supporters fell into the growing hatred and outrage of the Muslim population and the migrants towards the international leaders and through Bin Laden, these supporters embrace his campaigns. Supporters also come various sects, including displaced and refugee communities. Active supporters of the organization come from professional classes, including students. Their Islamic school of preference is also different numbers as they may be from Shi’a or Sunni Muslim groups. The Shi’a supporters are through the Iranian initiative in 1996 that transpired between Hizbollah and the Al-Qaeda. Whether they may be members or supporters, it is observed that they are willing to sacrifice their lives for the cause. Experts state that this feeling is mostly due to their fundamentalist belief or a sense of victimization that causes them to see Western influence negatively and as an oppressive entity to their Islamic belief. The insurgent energy that fills these members and supporters inspires their animosity to lean towards massacre and martyrdom.
Requirement 4: As the incipient stage proceeds to its course, the group has established its Areas of Operation and how they will proceed with their attack.
This requirement involves the definition of its areas of operation, the composition of its actions and troops, and the violent techniques to be used to sustain its activity. Operatives of the Al-Qaeda vary in nature, especially in carrying out their acts – from the professionals such as Mohammed Atta (commander of the 9/11 attacks) to the less-trained volunteers like Ahmed Ressam (who planned to blow up LAX) and Richard Reid (who planned to sabotage an American Airlines flight). It is often that the actions of the Al-Qaeda vary to ensure that its actions are not easily determined by their opponents. Nonetheless, the tactics used by the organization include assassination, bombing, kidnapping, suicide attacks and the use of weapons of mass destruction (biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons) against their enemies. Sometimes, the group acts as a foundation to support local and international terrorist groups that propose plans for attacks that can help in attaining the group’s goal. There is also a lack of SOP (standard operating procedure) within the organization, but had developed Encyclopedia of the Afghan Jihad as a manual for its operations. Given Bin Laden’s background, he made sure that the Al-Qaeda resembled a modern corporation that uses management concepts such as networks, mission statements, and an organized system for decision-making especially in the lower ranks.
The operation of the organization is also unique in its own way as it ensures longevity and durability to persist. Experts see that this strategy of Al-Qaeda can be seen as a “strong coupling between evolutionary dynamics of the groups that engage in terrorist activities”. The lack of SOP within the organization enables the organization to attack in the current environment, coordinating with its members easily. The durability of the Al-Qaeda is also influenced by three factors: dynamic organizational structure (the elements that sustain its network, hiding it from detection due to the lack of geographical and national identity), radicalization (they can easily restock or replenish ranks and support) and sanctuary (it has several safe havens throughout the region to regenerate its power and plan). The availability of these factors to the Al-Qaeda ensures further success to the organization. The Al-Qaeda is also dependent on its ability to “integrate, build, and reconfigure” to easily blend in the environment they are placed into, adding to their success rate .
In lieu of its activities around the globe, the Al-Qaeda had created strong partnerships with other terrorist organizations and established other organizations as a subsidiary of the organization. In 1998, the International Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders was established as a partnership between Al-Qaeda and groups from Egypt, Algeria, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The organization is also connected with groups such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and Abu Sayyaf (Philippines), the Jemaah Islamiah (Southeast Asia), the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan and the Harakat ul-Mujahidin (Pakistan/Kashmir). While some comment that the affiliations of Al-Qaeda is a sign that it is becoming weaker, others argue that the cooperation between these groups is alarming as it showcases the capacity of Al-Qaeda to stretch to other regions and fuel its international anti-US/West agendas . Aside from these partnerships, the Al-Qaeda is notoriously known for its capability to unite uncommon groups that vary in belief and Islamic schools just like its partnership with the Hizbollah, a Shi’a group. The Hizbollah had already been known by many as the “most sophisticated terrorist group” and similar with Al-Qaeda as the Hizbollah has bases in the “tri-border region” in South America after its Lebanon. The organization is also connected with Iran and Syria and contradicts with the United States .
In terms of its areas of operation, the Al-Qaeda has connections and cells worldwide, sustained by the networks created by Bin Laden before its establishment and with the coalitions it has made through the years. Although the Taliban-Al Qaeda protection has led to the deaths and capture of many of its operatives, including the deaths of its leaders, many of the organization’s members are still on the run and being hidden by their partners. It is expected that these members would continue to carry out the attacks against the US. Aside from the US, the organization also operates in Yemen, Germany and Pakistan. The global reach of the organization, including its financing and logistic capabilities, enables it to reach Afghanistan, Algeria, Chechnya, Kosovo, the Philippines, Somalia, and Kosovo. There are also reported attacks and conflicts caused by Al-Qaeda in the areas of Africa, Europe and the South Americas. With the attacks in Afghanistan and Iraq, the headquarters of Al-Qaeda is currently not known. Experts are also stating that despite the change in leadership and the crackdown done by the international community against the organization, it also has autonomous cells in the United Kingdom, Italy, France, Spain, Germany, and Uganda .
Requirement 5: the group employs an array of political, psychological and paramilitary methods within their identified targets both on near and far enemies.
For the final requirement, in order to sustain the long wars, the insurgent group must establish a system to support their war-fighting strategy against their enemies . In the case of Al-Qaeda, its strategy is sustained by political, psychological and paramilitary methods. Politically and psychologically, the Al-Qaeda also utilizes the usual propaganda strategy of using posters, books, pamphlets, radio commercials/channels, and television to transmit its ideology and agenda to the people. The group utilizes this method to arouse the consciousness of the people by establishing the idea of “propaganda by the deed” or violent acts that showcases their brutality demonstrating the power of the group. The group does not use only one means on passing its message to the people to cover all intended demographic. The first communique released by Bin Laden for the Al-Qaeda was in the form of an open letter in 1995 addressed to the King of Saudi Arabia, followed by a declaration of war towards the US. Almost immediately, Bin Laden had gotten the attention of the public as high-profile interviews by Western and Arab journalists were done to discuss these papers. The wording of the communique and the other mediums used by the group to transmit its information is written in formal and scholarly prose. Bin Laden outlines texts detailing several events in Islamic history to support the arguments he presents to the people.
After the 9/11 attacks, the mediums released by the group is less formal and mostly highlighted the successes of the group in launching its international jihad. Nonetheless, it has still retained the same themes utilized prior to 9/11 to sustain its arguments. Bin Laden’s technique ensures that he could reach Arabic-speaking audiences and trigger their consciousness over the injustices the Al-Qaeda is trying to contain. He, in his messages, showcases an image as a defender of the Muslim people and as a man untainted by the ongoing spiritual corruption happening throughout the Muslim world. Bin Laden also takes into account to speak to the people in his communiques and letters, explaining why these attacks happen and show that he is a man that actually advocates peace. The discussion of these messages from bin Laden also showcase his capability in engaging with every listener as they are placed on the spot by the medium used by the organization in a moral dilemma. Once the listener is in tune with the dilemma, bin Laden then questions the listener by invoking a line from the Quran “do you want to walk along the straight path? (sirat al-mustaqim). The Al-Qaeda released a video and an audiotaped message to praise all the terrorist organizations mobilizing throughout the globe and warned the public of more violence to come unless changes are visible in these territories. It is also observed by scholars that Bin Laden’s words are showing the group’s means to present the situation and a simple means to obtain salvation by joining the cause . It had also released training materials, the Encyclopedia of the Afghan Jihad and the In the Shadow of the Lance.
Aside from its power and reach, the Al-Qaeda is hailed as the most successful terrorist organization/insurgency that had revolutionized their operations by utilizing information technologies, especially the Internet. The SITE Institute, which currently is tracking the jihadist forums, state that Al-Qaeda utilizes a free and secret means to send messages through their phones. Text messages were used to organize flash mobs and with the internet providing anonymity, members can protect themselves from further scrutiny from their governments. Cyberjihadists included in the Al-Qaeda bandwagon, such as the Global Islamic Media Front, provided specialized manuals to create private Internet proxies to stop the government from identifying terminals of members. Al-Qaeda also separates itself from other organizations utilizing the Internet due to the fact that it uses 4,000 websites to push entice others to join their jihad and it also utilizes cyberplanning to mobilize, communicate, raise funds and plan attacks/protests . Traditional means were also used by the organization to reach the people through videos, manifestos and several written materials. Finally, the group also utilizes the media to spread its propaganda and call to the people. The group has its own media outfits such as Nida’ul Islam (The Call of Islam) in Australia, the Voice of Jihad, and the Al-Battar Training Camp magazines. It also transmits its message through satellite stations of al-Jazeera and al-Arabiya and the media sources like CNN, BBC and MSNBC. Given its reach through the mediums it uses to target its enemies, the Al-Qaeda has successfully influence public opinion in several locations such as in the Iraqi War (Spain did not support the war), and how Western journalist report the position of the group. The United States had also been affected by the group’s propaganda as it now influences the country on how it releases its terror alerts and terrorizes the American people through its communiques .
In addition to the use of mediums to propagate information and to influence the psychology of the people in terms of what the organization is fighting for, the Al-Qaeda attacks its opponents politically in the extent it tries to erode support for the US from other Western countries. The Al-Qaeda believes that this would result into a chasm or clash between allies and a possible rift in the future. In a book entitled “Iraqi Jihad: Hopes and Risks” posted in one of the website of the Center of Services for the Mujahideen identified that the Spanish troops should be the one attacked in Iraq because it is the “weakest link” of support for the US forces. If Spain’s contingent is attacked, it would result into a gradual erosion of support for the US, isolating Washington completely from its allies and territories. On December 8, 2003, the Global Islamic Media Front had released the same threat on Spain that resulted into several bombings in Madrid in March 11, 2004 . In a paramilitary aspect, Al-Qaeda utilizes jihadi training camps to train their members in order for them to acclimatize to all types of zones for fighting – Afghanistan to Yemen and even reach Egypt and Turkey. These camps are usually capable of accommodating hundreds of terrorists and even has a clear curriculum for their students. Basic infantry training to explosive making were taught to these camps, learning how each weapon (Kalashnikov, PKs, M16s, RPG grenades and pistols) work and what are they suited for. Some of the trainees were selected to concentrate on understanding C4 and Molotov bombs . Aside from these available bombs and artillery, the Al-Qaeda has expressed that they are willing to utilize Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear weapons (Weapons of Mass Destruction) in order to fuel its crusade. They claim that it is a means for defense and claiming these weapons would add into their success in attaining their religious duty .
After 9/11 and the crackdown of the international community against them, the Al-Qaeda’s leadership and overall structure had shattered completely as the losses of its top leaders had taken its toll on the group. However, analysts have stated that the group still is a global insurgency threat that must be closely monitored as the ideology has already branched out throughout the globe. While it has lost most of its propagandist in the form of Bin Laden, al- Qaeda remains a strong coalition. Experts also see that the withdrawal of the US forces in Afghanistan may provide breathing space for the main Al-Qaeda to use in order to revive its fallen state, the lawlessness of the region is also a cause of concern as militants such as members of the Al-Qaeda use it for their propaganda. Unless the international community does something with the still lingering insurgents supporting the Al Qaeda bandwagon, there is a possibility that the organization would come back once more .
Since its establishment to counter all foreign invaders in the region, the Al-Qaeda had made its mark in history not just as a terrorist organization or a national threat; but as a global insurgent that has shuffled the status quo and peace of the entire globe. With the need to also include other nations in its area of operation and reach, Al-Qaeda remodeled itself as an armed rebellion against foreign powers that attempts to influence the region for its Western beliefs; fighting in order to create it’s the ideal Islamic regime in regions wherein Muslim communities are oppressed. The organization itself is a fine example of a global insurgency for the very fact its organization, members, ideology and tactics encompass not just the regions within its territories, but also the countries where they see Muslim communities oppressed and remove Western influence in these areas or convert them. While the organization has taken a toll after the death of its leaders, the organization clearly shows that it has managed to introduce an ideology that is anti-West, anti-US and that it is willing to do anything to attain the ideal Islamic state.
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