Early in the 20th century nearly 84% of Indonesia was covered with forests. However, situation changed in 1970s, when country started to use “this valuable resource to its economic benefit with the development of the country's wood-processing industries” (abc.net.au, n. d.). After 1980s Indonesian paper and pulp industries grew rapidly. These changes didn’t pass without detriments to country’s forests. Trees suffer for logging, illegal logging, fires, conversion to palm oil plantations and other humans’ actions. It’s hard for officials to improve this situation because forest and commodity-based exports contribute “$21 billion to the national GDP and employing nearly 4 million people” (Stolle & Payne, 2015).
Environmental effects. Indonesia is a home for almost “10 per cent of the world's flowering plant species, 12 per cent of all mammal species, 17 per cent of all reptile and amphibian species and 17 per cent of all bird species” (abc.net.au, n. d.). Most of these representatives of flora and fauna live in the woods. Deforestation cuts their habitats and pushes some species towards extinction. For example, it was a concern about orangutans early in this century. Experts believed these primates will totally disappear in Indonesia in 10 to 20 years if deforestation will continue at the current rates. Reduction of rainforest’s areas leads to changes in local rainfall patterns. Deforestation also hurts atmosphere. According to World Bank this process gives 10% to 30% of all carbon emissions. Without trees ground can become more unstable that causes erosion.
Economical effects. Logging is the main source of income for many Indonesian workers. But when business is illegal communities don't have any pays for social and other projects. Employees also don’t give workers social packages or guaranties that job will be longtime.
Social effects. In regions like Gunung Palung people started to depend up logging. They made debts to buy equipment and supplies and traveled further to find new sources of wood. Illegal logging also created a basis for “bribery, violence and intimidation” (Lawson, n. d.).
Indonesian government tries to stop the illegal logging, but it is hard to do because of huge incomes from this business. Creating Tanjung Puting National Park didn’t immediately stop illegal business in the area. But officials work with this problem and want to show that environmental and economic prosperities shouldn’t compete. To prove this idea government need to give people more alternative sources of income. It already does it by spurring “companies to use existing farmland more efficiently and productively” (Stolle & Payne, 2015). Such practice was successful in Brazil where it led to decreasing deforestation because of soy expansion from 30% to 1%.
The other way is to create more strict laws for illegal loggers. Fines and other penalties should make business unprofitable for manufacturers, importers and huge buyers. Supply won’t exist without demand. Common people also should know more about deforestation’s consequences. Many of them think about woods only as a source of quick money. If people will know more about forests' features they can think twice before destroying it. For example, such areas are really important to smallholders. Forests are sources of “raw materials, soil fertility, nutrient cycling and flood and erosion control” (Stolle & Payne, 2015). They can give a long-term income with due care.
Stolle, F., & Payne, A. P. (2015). Extending Indonesia’s Forest Moratorium Is a Win for Business. Retrieved from http://www.wri.org/blog/2015/05/extending-indonesia%E2%80%99s-forest-moratorium-win-business
“Consequences of Illegal Logging”. (n. d.). Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2002/timber_mafia/resources/resources_consequences1.htm
Lawson, S. (n. d.). How illegal logging and the destruction of the world's forests is not just an environmental issue, and how it is everyone's responsibility to help fight it. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2002/timber_mafia/viewpoints/viewpoints_lawson.htm