Geographic information system is a technology that supports science by offering problem solving capabilities using data from geographical sources (Longley et al, 16). This technology uses a software product that can be installed on machines in order to be able to analyze digital representation of the geographic world. This technology consists of a particular component that gives it the ability of constructing, analyzing and representing geographical features in digital form. It consists of components which include an interface, data output and presentation, storage and database, data verification transformation and analysis (Melnick 9) that are connected together via a network. It is a powerful technology that accumulates vast amounts of data, interprets them and represents them in digital format, in computers or other data processing machines.
This GIS technology allows people to locate different geographic data collected from different locations with much clarity, and also capable of showing changes and trends within the environment. Other than being just an application, GIS application is also integrated into the corporate network in order to help in automating various aspects of data analysis. The process is aided by a structured GIS database management system. This database system consists of an attribute and the geometric database that is integrated with the user interface, which provides tools for processing geographical data. GIS application has been in use in a variety of areas ranging from environmental mapping and conservation, forest management and mostly used in climatology to examine the changes in climatic conditions. There are several GIS systems such as the Esri range of GIS products. This product is designed for environmental management in different ways. It supports an effective environmental practice by considering the whole environmental spectrum, proving tools that can be used to analyze environmental conditions and to provide better decision making about the environment. The Esri product suite utilizes mobile technology hence giving people mobility in terms of carrying out surveys as pertains different environmental conditions. There are examples of products that are designed for environmental management. For instance, the Arc GIS allows for compilation of geographic data and provides multiple layers that assist in analyzing spatial operations. It also provides the capability of data management in which geographic information can be presented in tabular form that can be accessed across the entire organization. The other GIS products designed for environmental management consists of desktop capabilities. These capabilities such as the arc reader which allows people to view and print published maps from a desktop application. The software also has an interoperable extension which allows users to access and read many data formats. This helps in environmental analysis by means of geospatial analysis, in which data can be modeled in different forms, interpreted to offer insightful ideas regarding the environment and to guide in relation to options for managing various aspects of the environment. Apart from this, the software is designed to be able to carry out complex geospatial analysis through surface interpolation and temporal analysis. These capabilities enable these tools to analyze historical environmental data, which can be useful in the purposes of finding solutions to results concerning new relationship sets identified by such analytic tools. Apart from these capabilities, the arc pad software allows people to access databases through the GIS system while in a remote location through mobile handheld devices, in order to update and read data from central databases. Other than the arc pad, the arc web offers access capabilities through the web through which access can be made possible via an online portal. GIS technology uses an architecture that gathers data from different sources. This technology allows the government to handle disasters within communities living around areas where disasters are likely to occur. It helps in the management and planning of disasters before they occur by helping in the observation of different environmental aspects. For example, GIS applications can be used to model certain information and to predict calamities in certain areas (“GIS for Planning and Community Development”). This helps to solve complicated environmental issues that cannot be detected by human effort without the assistance of other powerful machines that perform data analysis. This helps in predicting different cases in an ever changing environment. Through an understanding brought about by analyzing and prediction, there can be comprehensive planning as a result of interpreting geographical intelligence. It can be as a result of observing geographical relationships that are used by administrative personnel to prevent the occurrence of environmental hazards such as pollution known to be a global phenomenon. This technology works in connection with other components in order to produce desired results. The GIS network consists of different components that work together in order to analyze and present the results. It is established that it is widely used in environmental management in order to produce sustainable environmental practices that are aimed at restoring and protecting the environment. Geographic information systems are used to deliver quality results that are within national standards of environmental conservation. These products are designed and are suitable in the management of the environment.
Abukhater, Ahmed. "GIS for Planning and Community Development: Solving Global Challenges." - Directions Magazine. N.p., 22 Jan. 2011. Web. 23 Apr. 2014. <http://www.directionsmag.com/articles/gis-for-planning-and-community-development-solving-global-challenges/149245>.
Longley, Paul. Geographical Information Systems and Science. Chichester: Wiley, 2005. Print.
Melnick, Alan L. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (gis) in Public Health. Aspen Pubs, 2002. Print.